Breaking News
January 20, 2019 - Liver Transplant Survival May Improve With Race Matching
January 20, 2019 - Study implicates hyperactive immune system in aging brain disorders
January 20, 2019 - Cancer Diagnosis May Quadruple Suicide Risk
January 20, 2019 - Parkinson’s disease experts devise a roadmap
January 20, 2019 - Research brings new hope to treating degenerative brain diseases
January 20, 2019 - Scientists pinpoint a set of molecules that wire the body weight center of the brain
January 20, 2019 - Researchers get close to developing elusive blood test for Alzheimer’s disease
January 20, 2019 - UCLA researchers demonstrate new technique to develop cancer-fighting T cells
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover how cancer cells avoid genetic meltdown
January 20, 2019 - Exercise makes even the ‘still overweight’ healthier: study
January 20, 2019 - University of Utah to establish first-of-its-kind dark sky studies minor in the US
January 20, 2019 - School-based nutritional programs reduce student obesity
January 20, 2019 - Improved maternity care practices in the southern U.S. reduce racial inequities in breastfeeding
January 20, 2019 - New enzyme biomarker test indicates diseases and bacterial contamination
January 20, 2019 - Republican and Democratic governors have different visions to transform health care, say researchers
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover that spin flips happen in only half a picosecond in the course of a chemical reaction
January 20, 2019 - Suicide Risk Up More Than Fourfold for Cancer Patients
January 20, 2019 - Doctors find 122 nails in Ethiopian’s stomach
January 20, 2019 - UV disinfection technology eliminates up to 97.7% of pathogens in operating rooms
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover mechanism which drives leukemia cell growth
January 20, 2019 - AHA: Infection as a Baby Led to Heart Valve Surgery for Teen
January 20, 2019 - Injection improves vision in a form of childhood blindness
January 20, 2019 - Multiple sclerosis therapies delay progression of disability
January 20, 2019 - New study finds infrequent helmet use among bike share riders
January 20, 2019 - Clearing up information about corneal dystrophies
January 20, 2019 - Researchers describe new behavior in energy metabolism that refutes existing evidence
January 20, 2019 - New study takes first step toward treating endometriosis
January 20, 2019 - Researchers find how GREB1 gene promotes resistance to prostate cancer treatments
January 20, 2019 - Replacing Sitting Time With Activity Lowers Mortality Risk
January 20, 2019 - A simple, inexpensive intervention makes birth safer for moms and babies in parts of Africa
January 19, 2019 - New anti-inflammatory compound acts as ‘surge protector’ to reduce cancer growth
January 19, 2019 - Significant flaws found in recently released forensic software
January 19, 2019 - New Leash on Life? Staying Slim Keeps Pooches Happy, Healthy
January 19, 2019 - Men and women remember pain differently
January 19, 2019 - Rising air pollution linked with increased ER visits for breathing problems
January 19, 2019 - Study uses local data to model food consumption patterns among Seattle residents
January 19, 2019 - The brain’s cerebellum plays role in controlling reward and social behaviors, study shows
January 19, 2019 - Relationship between nurse work environment and patient safety
January 19, 2019 - Pioneering surgery restores movement to children paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis
January 19, 2019 - Genetic variants linked with risk tolerance and risky behaviors
January 19, 2019 - New research provides better understanding of our early human ancestors
January 19, 2019 - First-ever tailored reporting guidance to improve patient care and outcomes
January 19, 2019 - 4.6 percent of Massachusetts residents have opioid use disorder
January 19, 2019 - New study suggests vital exhaustion as risk factor for dementia
January 19, 2019 - New antibiotic discovery heralds breakthrough in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Ural Federal University scientists synthesize a group of multi-purpose fluorophores
January 19, 2019 - Researchers identify new therapeutic target in the fight against chronic liver diseases
January 19, 2019 - Preparation, characterization of Soyasapogenol B loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs
January 19, 2019 - FDA Approves Ontruzant (trastuzumab-dttb), a Biosimilar to Herceptin
January 19, 2019 - Tobacco use linked with higher use of opioids and sedatives
January 19, 2019 - Study delves deeper into developmental dyslexia
January 19, 2019 - Anti-vaccination movement one of the top health threats in 2019 says WHO
January 19, 2019 - Newly developed risk score more effective at identifying type 1 diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Highly effective protocol to prepare cannabis samples for THC/CBD analysis
January 19, 2019 - Prinston Pharmaceutical Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Irbesartan and Irbesartan HCTZ Tablets Due to Detection of a Trace Amount of Unexpected Impurity, N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the Products
January 19, 2019 - How does solid stress from brain tumors cause neuronal loss, neurologic dysfunction?
January 19, 2019 - $14.7 million partnership to supercharge vaccine development
January 19, 2019 - Ian Fotheringham receives Charles Tennant Memorial Lecture award
January 19, 2019 - Brain vital signs detect neurophysiological impairments in players with concussions
January 19, 2019 - Lack of job and poor housing conditions increased likelihood of people attending A&E
January 19, 2019 - Novel targeted drug delivery system improves conventional cancer treatments
January 19, 2019 - Rutgers study finds gene responsible for spread of prostate cancer
January 19, 2019 - Complications Higher Than Expected for Invasive Lung Tests
January 19, 2019 - 3-D printed implant promotes nerve cell growth to treat spinal cord injury
January 19, 2019 - Automated texts lead to improved outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery
January 19, 2019 - Poor cardiorespiratory fitness could increase risk of future heart attack, finds new study
January 19, 2019 - Drinking soft drinks while exercising in hot weather may increase risk of kidney disease
January 19, 2019 - Formlabs 3D prints anatomical models
January 19, 2019 - Heart-Healthy Living Also Wards Off Type 2 Diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media (for Parents)
January 19, 2019 - Metabolite produced by gut microbiota from pomegranates reduces inflammatory bowel disease
January 19, 2019 - Researchers examine how spray from showers and toilets expose us to disease causing bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Behavioral experiments confirm that additional neurons improve brain function
January 19, 2019 - New study compares performance of real-time infectious disease forecasting models
January 19, 2019 - Obesity can be risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma, confirms study
January 19, 2019 - New regulation designs on cigarette packs direct smokers’ attention to health warnings
January 19, 2019 - QIAGEN receives first companion diagnostic approval in Japan
January 19, 2019 - Study explores role of Dunning-Kruger effect in anti-vaccine attitudes
January 19, 2019 - Hepatitis C-infected patients with a history of liver cancer can be treated with antivirals
January 19, 2019 - Study shows how gut bacteria affect the treatment of Parkinson’s disease
Researchers uncover origin of virus-fighting plasma B cells

Researchers uncover origin of virus-fighting plasma B cells

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Plasma B cells, which move through the body releasing antibodies, are an important component of the body’s fight against viral infections and other invaders. They are relatively rare, however, and increasing their ranks is a major goal of vaccination. However, scientists do not yet fully understand how precursor cells are selected either to enter the body’s fluids as plasma cells or remain in the places, known as germinal centers, where they undergo reprogramming to become more specific attackers of an infection.

Now, in work published in Immunity, a group of researchers led by RIKEN and Osaka University have discovered an important mechanism that governs how B cells are chosen to become plasma cells. They found that the key to the commitment to a new state involves the strength of the interaction between the B cells and another type of immune cell, called T follicular helper cells.

It is known that plasma cells express a transcription factor called IRF4, and conversely do not express a transcription factor called Bcl6. The group wondered whether the fate of the cells was already being determined while they were in the germinal centers—groups of cells located in lymph nodes and the spleen where B cells mature. They examined the expression of these two factors in B cells still located in germinal centers, and found that in a subset of cells, Bcl6 was expressed at a low level and IRF4 at a high level. They also found that these cells express a cellular marker called CD69.

To determine whether these cells they had identified were indeed precursors to plasma B cells, they compared the cells they had identified with germinal center-derived plasma B cells, and found that the gene sequences of their B cell receptors, which govern the antibodies they produce, were very similar, indicating that they were from the same cell group. It was also clear that these cells shared the same developmental features with germinal center-derived plasma B cells, suggesting that they were indeed precursors.

Lastly, they decided to examine the relationship between these cells and T follicular helper cells, which are important for the maturation of B cells. Since the T follicular helper cells stimulate B cells with a surface protein called CD40, the team created B cells that express CD40 at low levels, and found that the number of plasma B cells dropped dramatically. Further experiments showed that the strength of the interaction between the plasma B cell precursors and the T follicular helper cells determines whether the B cell precursors are chosen to be plasma B cells or to remain in the germinal center to undergo further mutation before either being selected to perish or to become a high-affinity plasma B cell.

Tomohiro Kurosaki of the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science, who led the study, says, “Understanding how the body generates high-affinity plasma B cells, which are important in fighting viral infections such as influenza, which kills around 1,000 people per year in Japan, is important for creating more powerful vaccinations. Our work has given us important insights into how these cells are produced, and we hope it will be useful in this effort.”


Explore further:
Genetic control of immune cell proliferation

More information:
Wataru Ise et al, T Follicular Helper Cell-Germinal Center B Cell Interaction Strength Regulates Entry into Plasma Cell or Recycling Germinal Center Cell Fate, Immunity (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.03.027

Journal reference:
Immunity

Provided by:
RIKEN

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles