Breaking News
June 21, 2018 - People with severe obesity constantly try to reduce or control their weight
June 21, 2018 - Recovery and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
June 21, 2018 - ‘Hidden’ driver discovered that helps prime the anti-tumor immune response
June 21, 2018 - Groundbreaking discovery could be key to preventing cancer metastasis
June 21, 2018 - Impulse control disorders found to be more common in people taking Parkinson’s drugs
June 21, 2018 - Study finds possible link between Type 2 diabetes and common white pigment
June 21, 2018 - Most emergency department patients wish to be involved in medical decision-making
June 21, 2018 - Study highlights growing problem of ‘iPad neck’ among young adults and women
June 21, 2018 - UT Southwestern scientists identify gene mutation linked with perplexing brain condition
June 21, 2018 - New study sheds light on role of vitamin D in healthy pregnancy
June 21, 2018 - Teva Provides Update on Clinical Trial of Fremanezumab for Use in Chronic Cluster Headache
June 21, 2018 - Unlocking the secrets of HIV’s persistence
June 21, 2018 - New guidelines recommend newborns with Down’s syndrome to receive leukemia test
June 21, 2018 - BetterYou’s new Magnesium Bone Lotion helps maximize bone health
June 21, 2018 - UH scientist receives grant to examine understudied part of glaucoma
June 21, 2018 - Lifestyle intervention could normalize unhealthy behaviors that lead to cancer, chronic disease
June 21, 2018 - Combining two anti-malarial vaccines could greatly reduce number of infections
June 21, 2018 - By 2030, prostate and lung cancers expected to be most common cancers among HIV population
June 21, 2018 - Researchers evaluate patient satisfaction and well-being after breast reconstruction
June 21, 2018 - Combining stem cell technology and artificial intelligence to diagnose genetic cardiac diseases
June 21, 2018 - Monash study reveals why older people have reduced immune responses to cancer therapy
June 21, 2018 - Researchers develop new microscope system that can image living tissue in real time
June 21, 2018 - Long-term estrogen therapy alters microbial composition and activity in the gut
June 21, 2018 - Study points to dangers of feeding non-dairy drink to infants
June 21, 2018 - Cannabis Use Linked to Psychosis Symptoms in Adolescents
June 21, 2018 - Inadequate sleep could cost countries billions
June 21, 2018 - Inhibiting epigenetic proteins with drugs could prevent development of breast cancer
June 21, 2018 - Study identifies factors that contribute to vaginal dryness
June 21, 2018 - Researchers employ nucleotide-based gene silencing to mitigate common ataxia
June 21, 2018 - New tool determines best treatment plan for adults with severe asthma
June 21, 2018 - Identifying gene variants that contribute to ovarian reserve may improve female fertility
June 21, 2018 - Religious involvement has no significant effect on misuse of prescription opioids, study finds
June 21, 2018 - Researchers characterize key signaling network that drives growth of triple negative breast cancers
June 21, 2018 - AHA: Big Weight Gain in 1st Pregnancy Could Boost Preeclampsia Risk
June 21, 2018 - How vaping helps even hardened smokers quit
June 21, 2018 - Gaming disorder an official disease condition says WHO
June 21, 2018 - Oxygen consumption in human BAT increases after a meal, shows research
June 21, 2018 - Research finds addictions to be diseases of the brain, not criminal behavior or personality disorders
June 21, 2018 - New study is testing safety and efficacy of glycoside in breaking up kidney stones
June 21, 2018 - Biosimilar competition may offer hope for cheaper, better psoriasis treatments in the future
June 21, 2018 - Cells form cage-like structures that trap viruses
June 21, 2018 - Wound protector use linked to significant reduction in surgical site infection
June 21, 2018 - African Americans and Latinos are more likely to be at risk for depression than Whites
June 21, 2018 - Genome study presents new way to track historical demographics of US populations
June 20, 2018 - Study sheds light on the early stages of tumorigenesis
June 20, 2018 - Quick adoption of new diagnostic tests could help NHS to save nearly £7 billion
June 20, 2018 - Mayo Clinic researchers find genetic mutations that increase person’s risk for pancreatic cancer
June 20, 2018 - Chemists invent new method for remote chiral induction
June 20, 2018 - Methadone or buprenorphine associated with reductions in opioid related mortality
June 20, 2018 - New simulation approach predicts efficacy of HIV-prophylaxis medications
June 20, 2018 - Rhythm Pharmaceuticals Completes Pivotal Enrollment in Two Ongoing Phase 3 Clinical Trials Evaluating Setmelanotide in Rare Genetic Disorders of Obesity
June 20, 2018 - Threat of malaria left its mark on the immune system in people with African ancestry
June 20, 2018 - Recent-onset type 2 diabetes may be early expression of pancreatic cancer
June 20, 2018 - Why are vaccines less effective in the developing world?
June 20, 2018 - Study opens new window into cellular events that occur in the brain during absence seizures
June 20, 2018 - Humana and Walgreens to provide easier access to primary care and other services for seniors
June 20, 2018 - ANU research could help find life in Mars and other planets
June 20, 2018 - Multidisciplinary Human-Focused Research
June 20, 2018 - ‘Mind-minded’ parents contribute greatly to development of infants’ emotion regulation capacity
June 20, 2018 - New study finds increase in use of alternative medicines among children
June 20, 2018 - Forgetting plays a positive role in learning, research suggests
June 20, 2018 - Elevated NT-proBNP Found to Up Cardiovascular Risk in T2DM
June 20, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: White-Sutton syndrome
June 20, 2018 - Canadian team reports success in transplanting hepatitis C organs
June 20, 2018 - Separating migrant children from parents at US border tantamount to child abuse
June 20, 2018 - Study finds more information about how gene linked to ASD affects the brain
June 20, 2018 - Researchers develop portable monitor to detect dangerous drop in white blood cells
June 20, 2018 - Floppy eyelids linked to sleep apnea
June 20, 2018 - Can-Fite provides update on Phase II clinical trial with drug candidate Namodenoson
June 20, 2018 - KIYATEC enrolls first patients with solid tumors in clinical study of its EV3D drug response assay
June 20, 2018 - Study finds growing support to allow pharmacists to write prescriptions
June 20, 2018 - Malnutrition could have major health implications on patients’ surgical outcomes, shows research
June 20, 2018 - LabConnect collaborates with Symphony to support clinical research industry
June 20, 2018 - Italian innovative SME receives 2.5 million Euro from RedSeed Ventures
June 20, 2018 - AHA: Kids Can Drown Quickly and Silently, So Prevention Is Key
June 20, 2018 - Continuous glucose monitors proven cost-effective, add to quality of life for diabetics
June 20, 2018 - Researchers use droplet-sized ‘miniecosystems’ to test therapeutic potential of molecules
June 20, 2018 - New approach could provide objective and easy-to-obtain measure of dietary adherence
June 20, 2018 - Dual-therapy approach can help boost motor recovery in stroke victims
June 20, 2018 - ‘Miracle treatment’ long-term success for babies with diabetes
HIV-1 viruses transmitted at birth are resistant to antibodies in mother’s blood

HIV-1 viruses transmitted at birth are resistant to antibodies in mother’s blood

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
In the absence of any intervention, rate of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 is about 40%. With ART intervention this rate of MTCT can be reduced to lower than 5%. However, access, adherence, resistance, and toxicity to ART remains an important issue in preventing MTCT. Hence, there is an urgent need for interventions that can synergize with ART. Our study shows that escape of maternal antibody neutralization, potentially at the variable loop 3 (V3) region and membrane proximal external region (MPER) play a significant role in selecting maternal variants causing infections in infants. Active targeting of viruses resistant to maternal antibodies via direct immunization or passive therapies, such as VRC01 like broadly-neutralizing antibodies, could help elminate MTCT. Credit: Kumar et al (2018)

Of the genetically diverse population of HIV-1 viruses present in an infected pregnant woman, the few she might transmit to her child during delivery are resistant to attack by antibodies in her blood, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Amit Kumar of Duke University Medical Centre, North Carolina, and colleagues.

An infected mother can transmit HIV-1 to her child during pregnancy, while breastfeeding, or at the time of delivery. Antiretroviral drugs significantly reduce transmission risk, but these treatments are often not perfectly administered, particularly in resource-poor regions. Better understanding of how HIV-1 viruses are transmitted at delivery could inform new strategies to reduce infant HIV-1 infection.

Previous research has suggested that antibodies—immune system proteins that can attack viruses—in a mother might be less effective against certain genetic variants of HIV-1 in her body, thereby allowing for transmission of resistant viruses to her infant at delivery. However, this research has been inconclusive, so Kumar and colleagues designed a new study to address the question.

The research team analyzed HIV-1 viruses present in blood samples from 16 infants infected at delivery and their mothers; the samples had been collected in the early 1990s in the Women and Infants Transmission Study, before antiretroviral treatments were available. The researchers sequenced the HIV-1 variants, and for each mother-infant pair, they tested the sensitivity of both transmitted and non-transmitted viruses to antibodies concurrently present in the mother’s blood.

The analysis revealed that most HIV-1 variants transmitted to the 16 infants at delivery were more resistant to the mothers’ antibodies than were non-transmitted variants. However, the transmitted viruses were sensitive to a separate panel of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies, which can block infection of diverse HIV-1 strains. Genetic analysis uncovered particular sites in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and variable loop 3 (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein may be important in mediating maternal antibody resistance.

These findings could help guide development of a new vaccine for pregnant mothers with HIV-1. Such a vaccine would boost maternal antibody attack of HIV-1 variants circulating in the blood, so that transmission risk is reduced when an infant is exposed to maternal blood during delivery.


Explore further:
Strong maternal antibodies for HIV ineffective for protecting infants from HIV

More information:
Kumar A, Smith CEP, Giorgi EE, Eudailey J, Martinez DR, Yusim K, et al. (2018) Infant transmitted/founder HIV-1 viruses from peripartum transmission are neutralization resistant to paired maternal plasma. PLoS Pathog 14(4): e1006944. doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006944

Journal reference:
PLoS Pathogens

Provided by:
Public Library of Science

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles