Breaking News
August 15, 2018 - Real-time dynamic monitoring of cell’s nucleus for effective cancer screening
August 15, 2018 - Lower rates of Medicare preventive care visits found in racial, ethnic minority older adults
August 15, 2018 - Scientists identify stress hormone as key factor in failure of immune system to inhibit leukemia
August 15, 2018 - Cytoplan introduces three new nutritional supplements
August 15, 2018 - Effective hemorrhage control critical for survival after motorsport accidents
August 15, 2018 - Sygnature Discovery announces ambitious expansion plan with addition of Alderley Park facility
August 15, 2018 - Dietary carbohydrates could lead to osteoarthritis, new study finds
August 15, 2018 - Male tobacco smokers have decreased number of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, study reveals
August 15, 2018 - Scientists explore ways for drug therapies to reach deadly brain tumors
August 15, 2018 - Rethinking fundamental rule of stroke care: ‘Time is brain!’
August 15, 2018 - Scientists reveal role of ‘junk DNA’ in cancer dissemination
August 15, 2018 - Google’s DeepMind AI could soon be diagnosing eye conditions
August 15, 2018 - Scientists trick the brain to embody the prosthetic limb
August 15, 2018 - Researchers focus on uncoupling obesity from diabetes
August 15, 2018 - A class of proteins shown to be effective in reducing drug-seeking behaviors
August 15, 2018 - Gemphire Announces Termination of Phase 2a Clinical Trial of Gemcabene in Pediatric NAFLD
August 15, 2018 - Rheumatoid arthritis in pregnancy associated with low birth weight and premature birth
August 15, 2018 - Study may help increase effectiveness of antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria
August 15, 2018 - Analyzing resident-to-resident incidents in dementia may hold the key to reducing future fatalities
August 15, 2018 - Robotic walking frame aims to help maintain mobility of older adults
August 15, 2018 - Simple intervention during routine care reduces alcohol consumption in men with HIV
August 15, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: gout
August 15, 2018 - Scientists ID genesis of disease, focus efforts on shape-shifting tau
August 15, 2018 - OncoThira and NDSU enter into license agreement to develop, market cancer compounds
August 15, 2018 - Scientists unravel the mystery behind ovarian cancer with high-grade serous carcinoma
August 15, 2018 - Common signs that indicate vision problems in children
August 15, 2018 - Removing the cancer label – overhaul in cancer classification proposed
August 15, 2018 - Prams may expose babies and toddlers to more air pollution finds study
August 15, 2018 - Duke researchers track missing T-cells in glioblastoma patients
August 15, 2018 - Cardiac Profiles Up With Exercise, Less Sitting in Early Old Age
August 15, 2018 - Precision medicine offers a glimmer of hope for Alzheimer’s disease
August 15, 2018 - Immunovia’s new blood-based testing platform accurately detects non-small cell lung cancer
August 15, 2018 - New method provides a ‘big picture’ of genetic influences on traits and diseases
August 15, 2018 - Early Onset Type 1 Diabetes Linked to Heart Disease, Shorter Life
August 14, 2018 - SMURF1 provides targeted approach to preventing cocaine addiction relapse
August 14, 2018 - Genetic testing pushed for hereditary high cholesterol disease
August 14, 2018 - Researchers discover new genes involved in Alzheimer’s Disease
August 14, 2018 - Medicare to overhaul ACOs but critics fear fewer participants
August 14, 2018 - Adolescent health projects receive meager percentage of global funding, study finds
August 14, 2018 - University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center launches new CAR-T therapy trial
August 14, 2018 - In the addiction battle, is forced rehab the solution?
August 14, 2018 - Busting myths about milk – Scope
August 14, 2018 - Platelet-rich plasma does not enhance cartilage formation capabilities of stem cells
August 14, 2018 - Wearable devices and ‘mhealth’ technology emerge as promising tools for better health
August 14, 2018 - Johns Hopkins expert panel develops first set of operation-specific opioid prescribing guidelines
August 14, 2018 - Clinical study suggests new treatment direction for head and neck cancer in heavy smokers
August 14, 2018 - Phase 2 Clinical Data Published Showing Summit’s Ridinilazole Preserved Gut Microbiome of Patients with CDI
August 14, 2018 - Cardiac progenitor cells undergo a cell fate switch to build coronary arteries
August 14, 2018 - Study identifies potential guidance to treat gastric cancer patients
August 14, 2018 - Revealed: The molecular mechanism underlying hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or “workaholic heart”
August 14, 2018 - Diabetes epidemic in Guatemala driven by aging, not obesity
August 14, 2018 - New technology shows potential to streamline the analysis of proteins
August 14, 2018 - Rethinking the stroke rule ‘time is brain’
August 14, 2018 - Incidence of coronary artery compression in children may be more common than previously thought
August 14, 2018 - Study helps to better understand disease caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
August 14, 2018 - AI platform identifies acute neurological illnesses faster than human diagnosis
August 14, 2018 - American College of Rheumatology receives grants to support development of lupus clinical trials
August 14, 2018 - New study explains why women get more migraines than men
August 14, 2018 - American Heart Association Urges Screen Time Limits for Youth
August 14, 2018 - Brief interventions during routine care reduce alcohol use among men with HIV
August 14, 2018 - New genome analysis could identify people at higher risk of common deadly diseases
August 14, 2018 - NIH grant for Mount Sinai to study use of inhaled corticosteroids for treatment of sickle cell disease
August 14, 2018 - Daicel supplies free nanodiamond samples to international researchers
August 14, 2018 - Switching anti-psychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia patients does not improve clinical outcomes
August 14, 2018 - Study to examine whether modulating gut bacteria can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients
August 14, 2018 - AI technology could hold key to improving health services
August 14, 2018 - One out of two children not getting enough nutrients needed for their health
August 14, 2018 - Mono-antiplatelet therapy after aortic heart valve replacements may work as well as two drugs
August 14, 2018 - Aid-in-dying patient chooses his last day
August 14, 2018 - Exercise Really Can Chase Away the Blues, to a Point
August 14, 2018 - Surgical mesh implants may cause autoimmune disorders
August 14, 2018 - Researchers develop revolutionary zebrafish model to gain more insight into bone diseases
August 14, 2018 - Researchers discover secret communication hotline between breast cancers and normal cells
August 14, 2018 - Study examines how a person adapts to visual field loss after stroke
August 14, 2018 - Researchers show how specialized nucleic acid-based nanostructures could help target cancer cells
August 14, 2018 - Reducing opioid prescriptions for one operation can also spill over to other procedures
August 14, 2018 - E-cigarettes not so safe but still better than cigarettes
August 14, 2018 - Researchers find link between common ‘harmless’ virus and cardiovascular damage
August 14, 2018 - Initiation of PIMs associated with higher risk of fracture-specific hospitalizations and mortality
August 14, 2018 - Genetically modified mosquitoes and special bed nets help tackle deadly diseases
Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender

Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s disease dementia vary considerably by age, gender and whether any signs or symptoms of dementia are present, according to a new study published online by Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association.

According to the authors, these are the first lifetime risk estimates for Alzheimer’s that take into account what are believed to be biological changes in the brain that occur 10 to 20 years before the well-known memory and thinking symptoms appear. These early changes, prior to overt clinical symptoms, are referred to as preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. This designation is currently only for research use until more scientific evidence is produced to determine if it can accurately predict the progression to symptoms.

The prevalence of this research-only stage of the Alzheimer’s continuum, known as preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, in the U.S. has been estimated at nearly 47 million people in a previous study. An example from this newly published report is of a 70-year-old male who has just amyloid, but no signs of neurodegeneration and no memory loss, has a lifetime risk of 19.9 percent. But, if he also had neurodegeneration in addition to amyloid, the lifetime risk rises to 31.3 percent. If, in addition, he had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) plus amyloid plus neurodegeneration, the risk rises to 86 percent.

“What we found in this research is that people with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease dementia may never experience any clinical symptoms during their lifetimes because of its long and variable preclinical period,” said Ron Brookmeyer, Ph.D., from the UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles. “The high mortality rates in elderly populations are also an important factor as individuals are likely to die of other causes.”

Brookmeyer provides an example of a 90-year-old female with amyloid plaques having a lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s disease of only 8.4 percent, compared to a 65-year-old female with amyloid plaques who has a lifetime risk of 29.3 percent. The lower lifetime risk for the 90-year-old versus the 65-year-old is explained by the shorter life expectancy of the older person.

That same 65-year-old female with amyloid plaques has a 10-year risk of Alzheimer’s disease dementia of 2.5 percent. Lifetime risks for females are generally higher than males because they live longer. Brookmeyer and his co-author Nada Abdalla, M.S., also of UCLA, state that the lifetime and 10-year risks provide an indication of the potential that someone will develop Alzheimer’s disease dementia based on their age and screenings for amyloid deposits, neurodegeneration and presence or absence of MCI or any combination of those three. For men and women, having the combination of all three puts them at the highest risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

“Just as there are risk predictors for whether you might have a heart attack, it will be important in the future to measure the likelihood that someone will develop Alzheimer’s disease,” said Maria Carrillo, Ph.D., Alzheimer’s Association chief science officer. “In the future, when treatments are available, this would be helpful, especially for people in the stages before the clinical symptoms appear. For example, those people with the highest 10-year risk of getting Alzheimer’s dementia would be high priority to volunteer for clinical trials evaluating Alzheimer’s medications or other therapies.”

After reviewing the existing scientific literature, including some of the largest longitudinal studies available that have measured biomarkers with data from thousands of people, (e.g., The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging) the authors created a computerized mathematical model to ascertain how likely a person would progress in the continuum of the disease. They based their calculations on the transition rates from the published studies and from U.S. death rates data based on age and gender. They acknowledge that future studies looking at transition rates need to be in ethnically diverse populations and also need to consider whether genetic variants such as the Apolipoprotein (APOE) ?4, which puts people at much higher likelihood for developing Alzheimer’s disease, would affect the lifetime risk estimates. And future studies will need to be based on research that is more conclusive than the current scientific literature about risk in relation to early biomarkers like presence of amyloid decades before symptoms appear.

“There are still many things to consider when assessing the value of screening people for Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers. Lifetime risks will help in formulating screening guidelines to identify those who would be most helped by screening, especially in the preclinical stage,” the authors conclude.

The model used in this study differs from the recently announced NIA-AA Research Framework Towards a Biological Definition of Alzheimer’s Disease. Under the framework, if a person does not have amyloid plaques, then they do not have Alzheimer’s pathology. Amyloid is one of the biomarkers along with tau tangles considered to be hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. In this model, two of the states of progression (state 3 which is neurodegeneration alone and state 6 which is MCI and neurodegeneration alone) do not include amyloid and would not be considered Alzheimer’s under the research framework.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles