Breaking News
August 16, 2018 - Can manipulating gut microbes improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure?
August 16, 2018 - Hearts of newborn piglets can completely heal after heart attacks
August 16, 2018 - Ablating the mutant p53 gene in mice with colorectal cancer inhibits tumor growth
August 16, 2018 - Higher BMI in people with prediabetes related to evening preference and lack of sufficient sleep
August 16, 2018 - Using peripheral nerve blocks to treat facial pain may produce long-term pain relief
August 16, 2018 - Neural stem cells are the key to tail regeneration
August 16, 2018 - Study compares genetic and neural contributions to ADHD in children with or without TBI
August 16, 2018 - Adding energy drinks to alcohol may exacerbate negative effects of binge drinking
August 16, 2018 - Eye Examination Can Help Detect Abuse in Children
August 16, 2018 - Know the Difference: Rheumatoid Arthritis or Osteoarthritis?
August 16, 2018 - From ‘sea of mutations,’ two possible cancer links rise to the surface
August 16, 2018 - Does medical school take too long?
August 16, 2018 - Brown University researchers reveal key physical properties of ‘giant’ cancer cells
August 16, 2018 - Regular resistance training improves exercise motivation
August 16, 2018 - Feds urge states to encourage cheaper plans off the exchanges
August 16, 2018 - Seven activities that prevent you from getting quality sleep during summer
August 16, 2018 - Five ways to tell if your baby is getting enough milk from breastfeeding
August 16, 2018 - From Pigs to Peacocks, What’s Up With Those ‘Emotional-Support Animals’?
August 16, 2018 - Breast cancers enlist the help of normal cells to help them spread and survive
August 16, 2018 - Engaging with “high-need” patients outside the clinic
August 16, 2018 - Research illuminates how online forum may offer suicide prevention support for males
August 16, 2018 - Researchers identify way to grow immune cells at large scale for preventing cancer reoccurrence
August 15, 2018 - Keck Medicine of USC’s hospitals ranked among nation’s best for the 10th consecutive year
August 15, 2018 - Researchers compare existing approaches for automating diagnostic procedures of skin lesions
August 15, 2018 - Autism risk determined by health of mom’s gut, research reveals
August 15, 2018 - WELL for Life challenges you to explore the great outdoors
August 15, 2018 - ‘Zombie’ gene protects elephants from cancer, study finds
August 15, 2018 - Ebola outbreak in Congo spreads to active combat zone
August 15, 2018 - Study highlights pollution exposure of babies in prams
August 15, 2018 - Study provides insight into link between sleep apnea and lipid metabolism
August 15, 2018 - New study focuses on promise of gene therapy for Amish nemaline myopathy
August 15, 2018 - Researchers discover new approach to alleviate chronic itch
August 15, 2018 - Uncovering the Mysteries of MS: Medical Imaging Helps NIH Researchers Understand the Tricky Disease
August 15, 2018 - Autistic people at greater risk of becoming homeless – new research
August 15, 2018 - New imaging technique can spot tuberculosis infection in an hour
August 15, 2018 - Scientists study effects of eating breakfast versus fasting overnight before exercise
August 15, 2018 - Talking with children about suicide could save lives
August 15, 2018 - Grip strength of children predicts future cardiometabolic health
August 15, 2018 - New polyclonal immunotherapy successfully neutralizes Ebola virus
August 15, 2018 - Innovative oncofertility program launched by RMA of New York and Mount Sinai Health System
August 15, 2018 - Study shows efficacy, safety of AAV5-based gene therapy to treat sheep model of achromatopsia
August 15, 2018 - Simple score helps predict which hospitalized heart attack patients are at high risk of readmissions
August 15, 2018 - New discoveries show how protein droplets do more than keep cells’ interiors tidy
August 15, 2018 - Study shows impact of optimizing airport flight patterns on human health
August 15, 2018 - Life experiences of feeling unwanted or unplanned associated with attachment insecurity
August 15, 2018 - ACS Briefing Discusses Use of Lessons From Combat Care
August 15, 2018 - Study identifies distinct origin of ADHD in children with history of brain injury
August 15, 2018 - IgG3 antibody stops B cells from fighting pathogens in HIV patients
August 15, 2018 - Scientists discover key vulnerability of mixed lineage leukemia
August 15, 2018 - College students may experience pressures from secondary exposure to opioid abuse
August 15, 2018 - Powerful new microscope reveals inner workings of human cells with unprecedented clarity
August 15, 2018 - Married people who fight nastily more likely to suffer from leaky guts, study suggests
August 15, 2018 - Working Out After Baby – Drugs.com MedNews
August 15, 2018 - Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
August 15, 2018 - ADHD linked to an increased risk of injury in children, study finds
August 15, 2018 - UIC researchers receive NIH funding to develop a better way to regenerate bone or tissues
August 15, 2018 - Study reveals how immune cells in the brain influence sexual behavior
August 15, 2018 - Researchers move closer to finding potential soft spot in drug-resistant tuberculosis
August 15, 2018 - Real-time dynamic monitoring of cell’s nucleus for effective cancer screening
August 15, 2018 - Lower rates of Medicare preventive care visits found in racial, ethnic minority older adults
August 15, 2018 - Scientists identify stress hormone as key factor in failure of immune system to inhibit leukemia
August 15, 2018 - Cytoplan introduces three new nutritional supplements
August 15, 2018 - Effective hemorrhage control critical for survival after motorsport accidents
August 15, 2018 - Sygnature Discovery announces ambitious expansion plan with addition of Alderley Park facility
August 15, 2018 - Dietary carbohydrates could lead to osteoarthritis, new study finds
August 15, 2018 - Male tobacco smokers have decreased number of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, study reveals
August 15, 2018 - Scientists explore ways for drug therapies to reach deadly brain tumors
August 15, 2018 - Rethinking fundamental rule of stroke care: ‘Time is brain!’
August 15, 2018 - Scientists reveal role of ‘junk DNA’ in cancer dissemination
August 15, 2018 - Google’s DeepMind AI could soon be diagnosing eye conditions
August 15, 2018 - Scientists trick the brain to embody the prosthetic limb
August 15, 2018 - Researchers focus on uncoupling obesity from diabetes
August 15, 2018 - Clinical study shows how EarlySense system effectively detects opioid-induced respiratory depression
August 15, 2018 - A class of proteins shown to be effective in reducing drug-seeking behaviors
August 15, 2018 - FundamentalVR launches first-of-its-kind SaaS software platform for surgical simulation
August 15, 2018 - Gemphire Announces Termination of Phase 2a Clinical Trial of Gemcabene in Pediatric NAFLD
August 15, 2018 - Rheumatoid arthritis in pregnancy associated with low birth weight and premature birth
August 15, 2018 - Study may help increase effectiveness of antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria
August 15, 2018 - Analyzing resident-to-resident incidents in dementia may hold the key to reducing future fatalities
August 15, 2018 - Robotic walking frame aims to help maintain mobility of older adults
Genetic testing of prostate tumors could identify likely responders to immunotherapy

Genetic testing of prostate tumors could identify likely responders to immunotherapy

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Scientists have identified a pattern of genetic changes that could pick out men with advanced prostate cancer who are likely to benefit from immunotherapy.

Developing a genetic test to pick out these men could speed up the path of immunotherapy into use for prostate cancer patients.

A major clinical trial earlier this month became the first to show that immunotherapy could work in advanced prostate cancer – but only for about 10 per cent of men.

Now the new study, involving scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, has discovered that testing the genetics of prostate tumors could identify the likely responders.

The research, published today (Thursday) in the prestigious journal Cell, found that men whose tumors had a distinct pattern of genetic changes could be much more likely to benefit from immunotherapy than otherwise.

The study was supported by funders including the Prostate Cancer Foundation and Stand Up 2 Cancer.

Scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) worked with colleagues at the University of Michigan in the US to analyze tumor DNA collected internationally from 360 men with advanced prostate cancer that had spread.

They found that the tumors of 7 per cent of these men were missing both copies of a gene called CDK12, a trait that was linked with a unique pattern of additional genetic changes.

Tumors with this genetic profile contained a higher number of immune cells than other forms of advanced prostate cancer.

They also had a higher number of protein fragments on their surface, called neoantigens, which flag tumor cells to the immune system. Tumors that are associated with large numbers of immune cells and neoantigens often respond better to immunotherapy, presumably because the immune system has already begun to recognize elements of the cancer as foreign.

In a small pilot clinical study carried out in the US as part of the research, two out of four men with advanced prostate cancer whose tumors had CDK12-linked genetic changes responded remarkably well to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab.

It follows the results of a clinical trial led by the ICR and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust which showed pembrolizumab could benefit a subset of patients with advanced prostate cancer who had run out of existing treatment options.

In the new study, the pattern of genetic changes linked with the missing copies of the CDK12 gene was distinct from other, previously identified genetic subtypes of prostate cancer, making this an entirely separate form of the disease.

If the research can be replicated in larger numbers of patients, it could lead to introduction of a genetic test as a precursor to offering immunotherapy.

In future, CDK12 could also be explored as a genetic weakness that could be targeted by new precision drugs for prostate cancer. Professor Johann de Bono, Regius Professor of Cancer Research at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said:

“Immunotherapy works for a relatively small group of men with advanced prostate cancer – but when it works, it really works. If we can identify in advance who will benefit, then it should accelerate the passage of immunotherapy into routine use for patients.

“Our new study has revealed a distinct group of men with advanced prostate cancer whose tumors have biological features that could make them likely to respond to immunotherapy drugs such as pembrolizumab.

“We now need larger clinical studies to further study the benefit of immunotherapy in this group of patients. In the future, a genetic test could help pick out men with this particular set of genetic changes, so that they can be considered for immunotherapy.”

Professor Paul Workman, Chief Executive of The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said:

“Increasing our understanding of the biological and genetic features of cancer is vital in the search for smarter, kinder cancer treatments.

“It’s exciting that this study may have cracked the underlying biology of why only some men with prostate cancer appear to respond well to immunotherapy.

“I look forward to this work being taken forward as soon as possible with the aim of ensuring that some men with prostate cancer can start having the same kinds of benefit from immunotherapy that we are seeing in other tumor types.”

Howard Soule, Ph.D., executive vice president and chief science officer of the Prostate Cancer Foundation, said:

“The identification of CDK12 loss as a possible biomarker for identifying prostate cancer patients who may respond to checkpoint immunotherapy is a hugely significant finding, as researchers have struggled with how to effectively use immunotherapy in prostate cancer for many years.

Source:

https://www.icr.ac.uk/news-archive/gene-testing-could-identify-men-with-prostate-cancer-who-may-benefit-from-immunotherapy

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles