Breaking News
October 18, 2018 - Health Highlights: Oct. 15, 2018
October 18, 2018 - Largest study of ‘post-treatment controllers’ reveals clues about HIV remission
October 18, 2018 - Bad Blood in Silicon Valley: A conversation with John Carreyrou
October 18, 2018 - ANTRUK’s Annual Lecture sends out message on shortage of funds for antibiotic research
October 18, 2018 - NAM special publication outlines steps to ensure interoperability of health care systems
October 18, 2018 - Novel method uses just a drop of blood to monitor effect of lung cancer therapy
October 18, 2018 - New blood test could spare cancer patients from unnecessary chemotherapy
October 18, 2018 - Training young researchers to work with data volumes arising in the health sector
October 18, 2018 - New Metrohm IC method is reliable and convenient to use for zinc oxide assay
October 18, 2018 - Global AIDS, TB fight needs more money: health fund
October 18, 2018 - Understanding the forces that cause sports concussions
October 18, 2018 - Research points to new target for treating periodontitis
October 18, 2018 - New tool improves assessment of postpartum depression symptoms
October 18, 2018 - From Biopsy to Diagnosis
October 18, 2018 - Sexual harassment and assault linked to worse physical/mental health among midlife women
October 18, 2018 - Stumped by medical school? A Q&A with a learning specialist
October 18, 2018 - Targeting immune checkpoints in microglia could reduce out-of-control neuroinflammation
October 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Talzenna (talazoparib) for gBRCAm HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer
October 18, 2018 - Sleeping Beauty technique helps identify genes responsible for NAFLD-associated liver cancer
October 18, 2018 - Many U.S. adults confused about primary care, study shows
October 18, 2018 - UC researcher focuses on light-mediated therapies to target breast cancer
October 18, 2018 - With philanthropic gifts, Stanford poised to make major advances in neurosciences | News Center
October 18, 2018 - Mice study shows antibiotics are not always necessary to cure sepsis
October 18, 2018 - Researchers discover why heart contractions are weaker in individuals with HCM
October 18, 2018 - Participation in organized sport during childhood may have long-term skeletal benefits
October 18, 2018 - Probiotic/antibiotic combination could eradicate drug-resistant bacteria
October 17, 2018 - More Socioeconomic Challenges for Hispanic Women With HIV
October 17, 2018 - 49,XXXXY syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
October 17, 2018 - Scientists uncover possible new causes of Tourette syndrome
October 17, 2018 - Girl undergoes unusual heart surgery after compassionate-use exemption | News Center
October 17, 2018 - Health Issues That Are Sometimes Mistaken for Gluten Sensitivity
October 17, 2018 - Elective induction of labor at 39 weeks may be beneficial option for women and their babies
October 17, 2018 - New smart watch algorithms can accurately monitor wearers’ sleep patterns
October 17, 2018 - Researchers demonstrate epigenetic memory transmission via sperm
October 17, 2018 - FDA, DHS announce memorandum of agreement to address cybersecurity in medical devices
October 17, 2018 - Health Tip: Know the Risks of Chicken Pox
October 17, 2018 - Immunotherapy effective against hereditary melanoma
October 17, 2018 - Researchers reveal new mechanism for how animal cells stay intact | News Center
October 17, 2018 - Alzheimer's Goes Under the Cryo-Electron Microscope
October 17, 2018 - Medicare for all? CMS chief warns program has enough problems already
October 17, 2018 - Metrohm Raman introduces Mira P handheld Raman system
October 17, 2018 - Expanding the knowledge about hippocampus to better understand cognitive deficits in MS
October 17, 2018 - Study of Nigerian breast cancer patients reveals prevalence of aggressive molecular features
October 17, 2018 - Many healthy children may have metabolic risk factors, finds study
October 17, 2018 - A new antibiotic could be a better, faster treatment for tuberculosis
October 17, 2018 - “I will not become a Robot Doctor”: A medical student vows to practice compassion
October 17, 2018 - Study findings may explain sporadic outbreaks of C. difficile infections in hospitals
October 17, 2018 - Purdue researchers develop new chemical process to find better drug ‘fits’ for patients
October 17, 2018 - Yale researchers develop way to attack RNA with small-molecule drugs
October 17, 2018 - New pragmatic study launched to understand the effectiveness of new type 2 diabetes drug
October 17, 2018 - Alnylam Announces Plan to Initiate Rolling Submission of a New Drug Application and Pursue Full Approval for Givosiran
October 17, 2018 - Nine cases of polio-like illness suspected in children in illinois
October 17, 2018 - Eisai enters into agreement with Eurofarma for development and sales of lorcaserin in 17 countries
October 17, 2018 - Patients once thought incurable can benefit from high-dose radiation therapy
October 17, 2018 - Researchers awarded grant to advance testing of experimental heroin vaccine
October 17, 2018 - Researchers examine SSRI use during pregnancy and major gestational malformations
October 17, 2018 - FDA grants Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for Immusoft’s Iduronicrin genleukocel-T
October 17, 2018 - Reliable Respiratory announces acquisition of Attleboro Area Medical Equipment
October 17, 2018 - Study reveals link between childhood abuse and higher arthritis risk in adulthood
October 17, 2018 - Research shows people over 65 are not performing enough physical activity
October 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Liletta (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system) 52 mg to Prevent Pregnancy for up to Five Years
October 17, 2018 - Weight gain after smoking cessation linked to increased short-term diabetes risk
October 17, 2018 - Researchers find opportunity to control salt-sensitive hypertension without exercising
October 17, 2018 - Women not warned about cancer associated with breast implants
October 17, 2018 - Metrohm offers robust handheld Raman analyzer for Defense and Security
October 17, 2018 - Modeling Non-Numerical Data in Systems Biology
October 17, 2018 - Research aims to address health disparities in African-American men
October 17, 2018 - Human and cattle decoys trap outdoor-biting mosquitoes in malaria endemic regions
October 17, 2018 - High Circulating Prolactin Level Inversely Linked to T2DM Risk
October 17, 2018 - Study finds gene variant predisposes people to both Type 2 diabetes and low body weight
October 17, 2018 - Metrohm software products make it easy to comply with ALOCA and ALCOA+ guidelines
October 17, 2018 - Network of doctors identify the cause of 31 new conditions
October 17, 2018 - Notable improvement in brain cancer survival among younger patients but not much for elderly
October 17, 2018 - Scientists shed light on roles of transcription factors, TP63 and SOX2, in squamous cell carcinoma
October 17, 2018 - Costs of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program may be higher than expected reimbursement
October 17, 2018 - Misuse of prescription opioids or benzodiazepines associated with suicidal thoughts
October 17, 2018 - New research seeks to address sex disparities in women’s health
October 17, 2018 - C-Section Rates Have Nearly Doubled Since 2000: Study
October 17, 2018 - Talking to Your Kids About STDs
October 17, 2018 - New classification of periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions
New proteomics studies help gain more insights into Alzheimer’s, cancer and listeriosis

New proteomics studies help gain more insights into Alzheimer’s, cancer and listeriosis

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Alzheimer’s protease curates neuron surfaces

The brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease contain many protein aggregates outside of cells, known as plaques. These are mainly made of the peptide amyloid-beta, which is released from the plasma membrane when the protease BACE1 cleaves its membrane-anchored precursor protein. Because amyloid-beta cannot be produced without BACE1, numerous BACE1 inhibitors have been tested or are in clinical trials as Alzheimer’s therapy.

In a recent article in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Julia Herber and colleagues at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases described how they used a targeted surface glycoproteomics method to observe the effects of BACE1 inhibition. By labeling glycosylated membrane proteins, the researchers showed that BACE1 inhibition increases the abundance of unprocessed amyloid precursor protein but also increases other BACE1 substrates and even nonsubstrate proteins. This suggests that the inhibitor may exert unanticipated side effects by remodeling neuronal surface proteomes.

Linking cancer’s sweet tooth and distaste for fiber

Cancer cells are strange. For energy, they rely on aerobic glycolysis, a relatively inefficient way of getting energy out of glucose, instead of shuttling glycolysis products into the mitochondria to finish breaking them down. Besides this widespread preference of most cancers, known as the Warburg effect, colorectal cancer cells have an extra metabolic quirk called the butyrate paradox. Whereas healthy cells in the colon depend on butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid made by bacteria in the digestive system, for a majority of their energy, cancerous cells are less able to proliferate when butyrate is available.

Researchers at China Pharmaceutical University in Nanjing reported on their studies of the metabolic changes in colorectal cancer cells in a recent paper in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. The work zeroed in on the cells’ distaste for butyrate and preference for glycolysis. Qingran Li and colleagues used a metabolomics screen and found that cancer cells, after treatment with butyrate, tend to activate mitochondrial oxidation and stop using glycolysis products to generate new nucleotides and amino acids. The researchers showed that butyrate pushes this metabolic remodeling by binding to pyruvate kinase isoform M2, or PKM2, and activating it. Active PKM2 generates pyruvate, the starting point of the Krebs cycle. This research adds evidence to the existing hypothesis that turning up PKM2 may suppress tumor growth.

Listeriolyin’s pore-forming toxin uses protein modification to get its way

It’s a tale nearly as old as genetic information: one set of cells would like to continue its daily business of protein synthesis and replication, while another would like to sabotage those mechanisms for its own gain. When the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, of foodborne infamy, finagles its way inside epithelial cells in the human intestines, the bacterium deploys the pore-forming toxin Listeriolysin O, or LLO, which interferes with the proteins synthesized by the infected cell. This ultimately results in cell death by creating holes in the cell membranes.

In a paper in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris describe a proteomics analysis of human epithelial cells treated with LLO, in which they found that the toxin acts exclusively by altering host proteins through post-translational modifications involving ubiquitin, rather than affecting transcriptional activity of underlying genes. They also found that a similar toxin, Perfringolysin O, acts through proteome remodeling.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles