Breaking News
November 18, 2018 - Rainforest vine compound makes pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to nutrient starvation
November 18, 2018 - A new mechanism in the control of inflammation
November 18, 2018 - Age-related decline in abstract reasoning ability predicts depressive symptoms over time
November 18, 2018 - Scientists succeed in increasing stability, biocompatibility of light-transducing nanoparticles
November 18, 2018 - Sugar, a ‘sweet’ tool to understand brain injuries
November 18, 2018 - Pharmacist-Led Effort Cuts Inappropriate Rx in Older Adults
November 18, 2018 - Novel discovery could lead to new cancer, autoimmune disease therapy
November 18, 2018 - AHA and ADA launch new initiative to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce heart disease risk
November 18, 2018 - Balanced production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines at two years of age protects against malaria
November 18, 2018 - New pharmacological agent shows promise for prevention of heart rhythm disorders
November 18, 2018 - All That Social Media May Boost Loneliness, Not Banish It
November 18, 2018 - Scientists shine new light on link between obesity and cancer
November 18, 2018 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in diet patterns
November 18, 2018 - Biogen Scoops Sixth Prix Galien Award with UK Win for Life-Changing Rare Disease Medicine
November 18, 2018 - Detectable HIV-1 in treated human liver cells found to be inert
November 18, 2018 - Using light to control crucial step in embryonic development
November 18, 2018 - Unusual case of father-to-son HIV transmission reported
November 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Aemcolo (rifamycin) to Treat Travelers’ Diarrhea
November 18, 2018 - Poverty blamed on widening north-south gap in young adult deaths in England
November 18, 2018 - Progress in meningitis lags far behind other vaccine-preventable diseases, analysis shows
November 18, 2018 - Consensus Statement Issued on Management of Foot, Ankle Gout
November 18, 2018 - Fine particle air pollution is a public health emergency hiding in plain sight
November 18, 2018 - In-hospital mortality higher among patients with drug-resistant infections
November 17, 2018 - Research shines new, explanatory light on link between obesity and cancer
November 17, 2018 - FIND explores new diagnostic assays for confirmatory HCV diagnosis in community settings
November 17, 2018 - Tracking Preemies’ Head Size May Yield IQ Clues
November 17, 2018 - Scientists call for unified standards in 3-D genome and epigenetic data
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 has beaten all records by attracting 3,113 attendees
November 17, 2018 - New strategy to hinder emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens
November 17, 2018 - Sexuality education before age 18 may reduce risk of sexual assault in college
November 17, 2018 - Reducing cellular proliferation could help deplete HIV reservoir and lead to a functional cure
November 17, 2018 - New model of FSHD could be useful to study effectiveness of experimental therapeutics
November 17, 2018 - FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers’ diarrhea
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 confirmed as a major hit with visitors, exhibitors and speakers
November 17, 2018 - Largest parasitic worm genetic study hatches novel treatment possibilities
November 17, 2018 - UCLA biologists uncover how head injuries can lead to serious brain disorders
November 17, 2018 - Static and dynamic physical activities offer varying protection against heart disease
November 17, 2018 - Obesity significantly increases risk of Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease
November 17, 2018 - New method to analyze cell membrane complexes could revolutionize the way we study diseases
November 17, 2018 - Researchers show how proteins interact in hypoxic conditions to facilitate mitochondrial fission
November 17, 2018 - People with rare cancers can benefit from genomic profiling, shows research
November 17, 2018 - NIH awards over $1.8 million to husband-and-wife doctors to test new breast cancer approach
November 17, 2018 - Four-in-one antibody used to fight flu shows promise in mice
November 17, 2018 - New approach allows pathogens to be starved by blocking important enzymes
November 17, 2018 - Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems
November 17, 2018 - Protein which plays role in sensing cell damage serves as new target to treat pulmonary hypertension
November 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Adcetris (brentuximab vedotin) in Combination with Chemotherapy for Adults with Previously Untreated Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma or Other CD30-Expressing Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas
November 17, 2018 - ID specialist input improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
November 17, 2018 - UT Southwestern scientists selected to receive 2019 Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards
November 17, 2018 - New clinical algorithm to help individuals manage type 2 diabetes when fasting during Ramadan
November 17, 2018 - Researchers identify LZTR1 as evolutionarily conserved component of RAS pathway
November 17, 2018 - Heart Disease Leading Cause of Death in Low-Income Counties
November 17, 2018 - Estrogen Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 17, 2018 - Research reveals link between immunity, diabetes
November 17, 2018 - Research shows how to achieve improved smoking cessation outcomes within California’s Medicaid population
November 17, 2018 - New study finds less understanding and implementation of patient engagement
November 17, 2018 - New shoe insole technology could help diabetic ulcers heal better while walking
November 17, 2018 - New method to extend cell division and immortalization of avian-derived cells
November 17, 2018 - Australian Academy of Science urges parents to vaccinate children against meningococcal disease
November 17, 2018 - Hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and metabolism in sedentary people
November 17, 2018 - Researchers produce 3D chemical maps of small biological samples
November 17, 2018 - Must Blood Pressure Rise Wth Age? Remote Tribes Hold Clues
November 17, 2018 - Noonan Syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Interventions to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes are underused, researchers say
November 17, 2018 - Hackathon prize winner seeks to remotely monitor patient skin conditions
November 17, 2018 - Research team identifies Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation for Leigh syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Gene editing could be used to halt kidney disease in patients with Joubert syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Study uncovers link between gut disruption and aging
November 17, 2018 - Teens more likely to pick up smoking after exposure from friends and family
November 17, 2018 - Nicoya designate the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine as the OpenSPR Centre of Excellence
November 17, 2018 - new horizon in dental, oral and craniofacial research
November 17, 2018 - How does poor air quality affect your health?
November 17, 2018 - New device can regulate children’s blood glucose more like natural pancreas
November 17, 2018 - Game-Changers in Western Blotting and Protein Analysis
November 17, 2018 - FDA announces new actions to limit sale of e-cigarettes to youth
November 17, 2018 - Warmer winter temperatures related to higher crime rates
November 17, 2018 - MCO places increasing emphasis on helping people find and access healthy food
November 17, 2018 - Group of students aim to improve malaria diagnosis using old smartphones
November 17, 2018 - Transplantation of feces may protect preterm children from deadly bowel disease
November 17, 2018 - Researchers explore whether low-gluten diets can be recommended for people without allergies
New modeling studies highlight urgent need for effective drug policy reforms to prevent HIV

New modeling studies highlight urgent need for effective drug policy reforms to prevent HIV

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

While global incidence rates of HIV have declined notably in recent years, the virus that causes AIDS remains a major and, in some ways largely unmitigated, public health threat in some countries and regions.

In a pair of new modeling studies, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with international colleagues, examined how policy reform in terms of drug decriminalization (in Mexico) and access to drug treatment (in Russia) might affect two regions hard hit by the HIV pandemic: Tijuana, Mexico and the Russian cities of Omsk and Ekaterinburg.

In the most recent study, published August 16 in the journal Lancet Public Health, first author Annick Borquez, PhD, and senior author Natasha K. Martin, DPhil, in the Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and their collaborators evaluated the impact of public health-oriented drug law reforms on HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

In 2012, Mexico reformed its drug laws, decriminalizing possession of small amounts of specified drugs and instituting drug treatment instead of incarceration. However, implementation of the reforms has been uneven and limited. Borquez and colleagues looked at the specific impact of the reforms on HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, a city adjacent to San Diego, California on the US-Mexico border and a major international drug trafficking route.

Modeling estimated that the limited reform implementation due to a lack of reform dissemination and operationalization prevented only 2 percent of new HIV infections between 2012 and 2017. “But going forward, if implementation reduced incarceration among people who inject drugs by 80 percent and instead diverted these individuals to evidence-based opioid agonist drug treatment, 21 percent of new HIV infections among people who inject drugs could be prevented between 2018 and 2030,” said Martin.

The study also highlighted the potential harms of inappropriate implementation.

“Unfortunately, the predominant type of drug ‘rehabilitation’ available in Tijuana is compulsory drug abstinence, which our modeling showed could potentially increase HIV transmission, underscoring the need for affordable evidence-based opioid agonist treatment which is effective at preventing HIV and other health harms,” said co-author Steffanie Strathdee, PhD, Harold Simon Professor in the Department of Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine and associate dean of global health sciences.

Said Borquez: “Monitoring and evaluation of public health-oriented drug law reforms is essential to inform their implementation at the local and global levels if we are to successfully guide this shift in drug policy.”

In the second study, published July 19 in Lancet HIV, first author Javier Cepeda, PhD, senior author Martin and colleagues employed epidemic modeling to determine the detrimental impact of Russian government policy prohibiting access to opiate agonist therapy, a key intervention used to prevent the risk of HIV and fatal overdose.

The study also explored how the potential benefits of scaled-up opiate agonist therapy, needle/syringe programs and antiretroviral therapy (ART) might have on preventing new HIV infections and fatal overdoses among people who inject drugs in Russia.

“Russia has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. Data from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates that 80 percent of new infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia occurred in Russia in 2015, fueled by injection drug use. And people who inject drugs in Russia have a very high risk of overdose,” said Martin.

“Opiate agonist therapy, which uses drugs like methadone to treat addiction and is highly effective at reducing the risk of HIV and overdose, is prohibited. Needle exchange programs are scarce and access to ART is very, very limited.”

The researchers found that without intervention, HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in Omsk could increase to 34 percent by 2028 and remain even higher in Ekaterinburg at 61 percent. However, scaling up opiate agonist therapy and needle exchange programs to half of people who inject drugs and tripling ART recruitment (thus reaching approximately 65 percent of HIV-positive people who inject drugs) could prevent 53 percent of new HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Omsk and 38 percent of new HIV infections in Ekaterinburg by 2028. Additionally, these programs could prevent roughly 30 percent of fatal overdoses over this time period.

“The data are unequivocal,” said Martin. “Without intervention, modeling shows the burden of HIV among people who inject drugs in Russia will worsen, escalating in places like Omsk and remaining endemically high in places like Ekaterinburg. However, by implementing already known and proven interventions, HIV and overdose rates can be significantly reduced and many lives saved. The Russian government urgently needs to reverse its policies towards harm reduction access.”

Source:

https://health.ucsd.edu/news/releases/Pages/2018-08-17-HIV-and-a-tale-of-a-few-cities.aspx

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles