Breaking News
November 19, 2018 - Nabriva Therapeutics Completes Submission of New Drug Application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Intravenous Contepo to Treat Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
November 19, 2018 - Beating breast cancer only to die of opioid use – a sad Appalachian story
November 19, 2018 - Workplace bullying or violence linked to higher risk of cardiovascular problems
November 19, 2018 - Changes in Risk Indicators of MetS Severity Tied to T2DM Risk
November 19, 2018 - ‘Game-changing’ skin sensor could improve life for a million hydrocephalus patients
November 19, 2018 - Alcohol ads on social media sites with pro-drinking comments increase desire to drink
November 19, 2018 - Neural networks could replace marker genes in RNA sequencing
November 19, 2018 - Obese adolescents feel less food enjoyment than those with normal weight, study reveals
November 18, 2018 - Goodbye ‘Gluten-Free’? Celiac Disease Vaccine May Make It Possible
November 18, 2018 - Skin ages when the main cells in the dermis lose their identity and function
November 18, 2018 - Rainforest vine compound makes pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to nutrient starvation
November 18, 2018 - A new mechanism in the control of inflammation
November 18, 2018 - Age-related decline in abstract reasoning ability predicts depressive symptoms over time
November 18, 2018 - Scientists succeed in increasing stability, biocompatibility of light-transducing nanoparticles
November 18, 2018 - Sugar, a ‘sweet’ tool to understand brain injuries
November 18, 2018 - Pharmacist-Led Effort Cuts Inappropriate Rx in Older Adults
November 18, 2018 - Novel discovery could lead to new cancer, autoimmune disease therapy
November 18, 2018 - AHA and ADA launch new initiative to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce heart disease risk
November 18, 2018 - Balanced production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines at two years of age protects against malaria
November 18, 2018 - New pharmacological agent shows promise for prevention of heart rhythm disorders
November 18, 2018 - All That Social Media May Boost Loneliness, Not Banish It
November 18, 2018 - Scientists shine new light on link between obesity and cancer
November 18, 2018 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in diet patterns
November 18, 2018 - Biogen Scoops Sixth Prix Galien Award with UK Win for Life-Changing Rare Disease Medicine
November 18, 2018 - Detectable HIV-1 in treated human liver cells found to be inert
November 18, 2018 - Using light to control crucial step in embryonic development
November 18, 2018 - Unusual case of father-to-son HIV transmission reported
November 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Aemcolo (rifamycin) to Treat Travelers’ Diarrhea
November 18, 2018 - Poverty blamed on widening north-south gap in young adult deaths in England
November 18, 2018 - Progress in meningitis lags far behind other vaccine-preventable diseases, analysis shows
November 18, 2018 - Consensus Statement Issued on Management of Foot, Ankle Gout
November 18, 2018 - Fine particle air pollution is a public health emergency hiding in plain sight
November 18, 2018 - In-hospital mortality higher among patients with drug-resistant infections
November 17, 2018 - Research shines new, explanatory light on link between obesity and cancer
November 17, 2018 - FIND explores new diagnostic assays for confirmatory HCV diagnosis in community settings
November 17, 2018 - Tracking Preemies’ Head Size May Yield IQ Clues
November 17, 2018 - Scientists call for unified standards in 3-D genome and epigenetic data
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 has beaten all records by attracting 3,113 attendees
November 17, 2018 - New strategy to hinder emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens
November 17, 2018 - Sexuality education before age 18 may reduce risk of sexual assault in college
November 17, 2018 - Reducing cellular proliferation could help deplete HIV reservoir and lead to a functional cure
November 17, 2018 - New model of FSHD could be useful to study effectiveness of experimental therapeutics
November 17, 2018 - FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers’ diarrhea
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 confirmed as a major hit with visitors, exhibitors and speakers
November 17, 2018 - Largest parasitic worm genetic study hatches novel treatment possibilities
November 17, 2018 - UCLA biologists uncover how head injuries can lead to serious brain disorders
November 17, 2018 - Static and dynamic physical activities offer varying protection against heart disease
November 17, 2018 - Obesity significantly increases risk of Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease
November 17, 2018 - New method to analyze cell membrane complexes could revolutionize the way we study diseases
November 17, 2018 - Researchers show how proteins interact in hypoxic conditions to facilitate mitochondrial fission
November 17, 2018 - People with rare cancers can benefit from genomic profiling, shows research
November 17, 2018 - NIH awards over $1.8 million to husband-and-wife doctors to test new breast cancer approach
November 17, 2018 - Four-in-one antibody used to fight flu shows promise in mice
November 17, 2018 - New approach allows pathogens to be starved by blocking important enzymes
November 17, 2018 - Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems
November 17, 2018 - Protein which plays role in sensing cell damage serves as new target to treat pulmonary hypertension
November 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Adcetris (brentuximab vedotin) in Combination with Chemotherapy for Adults with Previously Untreated Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma or Other CD30-Expressing Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas
November 17, 2018 - ID specialist input improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
November 17, 2018 - UT Southwestern scientists selected to receive 2019 Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards
November 17, 2018 - New clinical algorithm to help individuals manage type 2 diabetes when fasting during Ramadan
November 17, 2018 - Researchers identify LZTR1 as evolutionarily conserved component of RAS pathway
November 17, 2018 - Heart Disease Leading Cause of Death in Low-Income Counties
November 17, 2018 - Estrogen Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 17, 2018 - Research reveals link between immunity, diabetes
November 17, 2018 - Research shows how to achieve improved smoking cessation outcomes within California’s Medicaid population
November 17, 2018 - New study finds less understanding and implementation of patient engagement
November 17, 2018 - New shoe insole technology could help diabetic ulcers heal better while walking
November 17, 2018 - New method to extend cell division and immortalization of avian-derived cells
November 17, 2018 - Australian Academy of Science urges parents to vaccinate children against meningococcal disease
November 17, 2018 - Hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and metabolism in sedentary people
November 17, 2018 - Researchers produce 3D chemical maps of small biological samples
November 17, 2018 - Must Blood Pressure Rise Wth Age? Remote Tribes Hold Clues
November 17, 2018 - Noonan Syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Interventions to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes are underused, researchers say
November 17, 2018 - Hackathon prize winner seeks to remotely monitor patient skin conditions
November 17, 2018 - Research team identifies Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation for Leigh syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Gene editing could be used to halt kidney disease in patients with Joubert syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Study uncovers link between gut disruption and aging
November 17, 2018 - Teens more likely to pick up smoking after exposure from friends and family
November 17, 2018 - Nicoya designate the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine as the OpenSPR Centre of Excellence
Scientists get unprecedented view of brain development through high-resolution genomic map

Scientists get unprecedented view of brain development through high-resolution genomic map

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have created a massive database of the changes in gene activity of individual cells in the cerebellum during embryonic development and immediately after birth. The analysis of thousands of brain cells isolated from mice offers researchers a high-resolution map that enables scientists to view the detailed genomic changes cells undergo as the cerebellum wires its neural circuitry. The research will not only aid basic understanding of brain development, but also provide a foundation for understanding the cellular origins of brain disorders caused by errors in development. These anatomical defects include Joubert syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. The database will enable future studies tracing the cellular origins of childhood brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and ependymoma.

Researchers worldwide can interact with the data via an interface St. Jude has created called Cell Seek.

The findings appear today in the journal Current Biology. The research was led by co-corresponding authors John Easton, Ph.D., of the Department of Computational Biology; Paul Northcott, Ph.D., of the Department of Developmental Neurobiology; and Charles Gawad, M.D., Ph.D., of the Departments of Oncology and Computational Biology.

Although the cerebellum constitutes only about 10 percent of brain volume in humans, it contains more than half of all nerve cells in the central nervous system. The cerebellum is also a key brain control center, coordinating motor function and governing higher functions such as attention, and spatial and language processing.

In their research, Easton, Northcott, Gawad and their colleagues used a genetic sequencing technology called single-cell RNA-seq to measure the continually changing activity of genes in single brain cells isolated from embryonic and newborn mice. The researchers sequenced RNA because the level of such RNA reflects the level of gene activity, or “expression,” in the cell. RNA acts as the template to construct proteins that are the building blocks of cells.

Most such previous brain developmental studies analyzed changes in mixes of different brain cell types or studied a limited number of genes. However, the St. Jude researchers analyzed gene expression in a vast array of genes in each of the cell types present in the developing mouse brain.

To compile their data, scientists performed RNA-seq analyses of 39,245 brain cells during 12 time points of brain development. The 12 time points–a sequence of days during brain development–were well known as stages when immature brain cells “decide” to develop into mature specialized cells.

“What we have done is acquire global expression profiles of individual cells without using any prior knowledge. This has allowed us to study how many cell types there are at a specific development point and how they are related to each other in a much less biased manner than previous strategies,” Gawad said. “If we can capture cells in these different developmental states, we can begin to understand pediatric diseases that happen as a result of abnormal cerebellar development.”

“Also, since most brain tumors in young children occur in the cerebellar region, this will help us identify the cells of origin for different brain tumors and brain tumor subtypes,” he said.

To demonstrate their database, the researchers traced the gene expression in a type of immature brain cell called a glutamatergic progenitor cell as it “decided” what type of mature brain cell to become. Their analysis revealed that the decision point was characterized by waves of activation of master-control genes called transcription factors that regulate other genes.

“This analysis showed us that the developmental program for these cells was even more complex than we previously appreciated,” Gawad said. The finding opens the door for a deeper understanding of the type and order of genetic processes that drive these cells’ maturation, he said.

The Cell Seek interface will enable researchers worldwide to glean insight into brain development from the data, Gawad said.

“These kinds of data would not otherwise be accessible to many labs, as they are even more complex to analyze than traditional RNA sequencing data,” he said.

“We wanted to build an easy-to-use interface that allowed labs without bioinformatics capability to mine the data,” Gawad said. “With Cell Seek, they can easily track the developmental processes they are interested in and use the insights to inform their experiments to study cerebellar development and disease.”

Other St. Jude researchers are already using Cell Seek in their studies of both normal development and childhood cancer formation.

Source:

https://www.stjude.org/media-resources/news-releases/2018-medicine-science-news/high-resolution-genomic-map-gives-scientists-unprecedented-view-of-brain-development.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles