Breaking News
February 22, 2019 - Lower Self-Perception Observed in Children With Amblyopia
February 22, 2019 - Up to 15 percent of children have sleep apnea, yet 90 percent go undiagnosed
February 22, 2019 - Rare pulmonary defect prompts parents’ nationwide search for answers | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Lesbian and bisexual women at greater risk of being overweight, study finds
February 22, 2019 - UQ research may explain why vitamin D is essential for brain health
February 22, 2019 - Heart Attacks Rising Among Younger Women
February 22, 2019 - How your smartphone is affecting your relationship
February 22, 2019 - Orthopaedic surgeon receives prestigious award, $10 million grant | News Center
February 22, 2019 - New sepsis test could save thousands of lives
February 22, 2019 - Cervical cancer could be eradicated by 2100
February 21, 2019 - Sustained smoking cessation can lower risk of seropositive RA
February 21, 2019 - Thousands with chronic UTIs are not receiving the treatment they need
February 21, 2019 - Are teens getting high on social media? The surprising study seeking the pot-Instagram link
February 21, 2019 - Stanford expands biobank services | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Scientists identify link between drinking contexts and early onset intoxication among adolescents
February 21, 2019 - Strong social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women
February 21, 2019 - Rapid expansion of interventions could prevent up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer within 50 years
February 21, 2019 - Motif Bio Receives Complete Response Letter From The FDA
February 21, 2019 - Researchers map previously unknown disease in children
February 21, 2019 - A skeptical look at popular diets: Going gluten-free
February 21, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ How Safe Are Your Supplements?
February 21, 2019 - Factors associated with increased risk of developing surgical site infections
February 21, 2019 - Anticipatory signals in eye movements can help measure attentive capacity, learning with greater precision
February 21, 2019 - Study explores daily exposure to indoor air pollutants
February 21, 2019 - Evening exercise does not negatively affect sleep, may also reduce hunger
February 21, 2019 - Artificial intelligence technique can be used to identify alcohol misuse in trauma setting
February 21, 2019 - Overweight, obesity in adolescence associated with increased risk of renal cancer later in life
February 21, 2019 - BGU develops new AI platform for monitoring and predicting ALS progression
February 21, 2019 - Researchers discover a new promising target to improve HIV vaccines
February 21, 2019 - Brief Anesthesia in Infancy Does Not Mar Neurodevelopment
February 21, 2019 - Gaming system helps with autism diagnosis
February 21, 2019 - Heart Disease: Six Things Women Should Know
February 21, 2019 - More States Say Doctors Must Offer Overdose Reversal Drug Along With Opioids
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explore case studies focused on industries that kill more people than employed
February 21, 2019 - Only half of GP practice buildings are fit for purpose
February 21, 2019 - Intense exercise, fasting and hormones can enhance waste-protein removal, study shows
February 21, 2019 - Scientists can monitor brain activity to predict epileptic seizures few minutes in advance
February 21, 2019 - Study quantifies hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of Ugt isoforms in rats
February 21, 2019 - ‘Apple-Shaped’ Body? ‘Pear-Shaped’? Your Genes May Tell
February 21, 2019 - Can we repair the brain? The promise of stem cell technologies for treating Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - Trump Plan To Beat HIV Hits Rough Road In Rural America
February 21, 2019 - PENTAX Medical introduces new electrosurgical and argon plasma coagulation platforms
February 21, 2019 - Trump plan to beat HIV hits rough road in rural America
February 21, 2019 - Eating blueberries every day could help decrease blood pressure
February 21, 2019 - ‘No Second Chances’ report calls for new measures to combat cardiovascular disease in Australia
February 21, 2019 - Mayo clinic researchers discuss local case studies of leprosy
February 21, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate key role of salt in allergic immune reactions
February 21, 2019 - Experts propose revising the criteria for diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - The med student and the machine
February 21, 2019 - Hey, Hey! Ho, Ho! Is Striking For School Nurses The Way To Go?
February 21, 2019 - Latest research encourages children to move out and learn through physical activity
February 21, 2019 - Proper oral hygiene and regular visits to dentist can promote heart health
February 21, 2019 - New, versatile technique for remote control of transplanted cells in Parkinson’s
February 21, 2019 - Why melanoma tumors in the brain may be worse?
February 21, 2019 - New project aims to improve lung disease care in Appalachia
February 21, 2019 - Drug increases melanin production in some people with albinism
February 21, 2019 - Over 1 in 3 adults miss the mark on protein, finds study
February 21, 2019 - CymaBay Therapeutics Announces Seladelpar Granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the FDA for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis
February 21, 2019 - A correlation between obesity and income has only developed in the past 30 years
February 21, 2019 - Baby, then work: An effort to help resident-parents in emergency medicine
February 21, 2019 - Heavy cigarette smoking could damage vision, say researchers
February 21, 2019 - Some drug combinations may be more effective than others for schizophrenic patients
February 21, 2019 - Combination of common antibiotics can eliminate multi-drug resistant E. coli
February 21, 2019 - Number of calls to U.S. Poison Control regarding kratom exposure increased
February 21, 2019 - New computational tool searches for factors that cause specific diseases
February 21, 2019 - New method to assess effectiveness of psychotherapies for social anxiety disorder
February 21, 2019 - New technology measures hormones that influence reproductive health efficiently
February 21, 2019 - Bat influenza viruses could potentially attack the cells of humans and livestock
February 21, 2019 - Immunotherapeutic antibody therapy to kill cancer has now progressed to patient testing
February 21, 2019 - Johns Hopkins scientists find new compound that may prevent reperfusion injury
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new way to deliver treatment for cartilage regeneration
February 21, 2019 - Study sheds new light on left ventricular dysfunction in ischemic heart disease
February 21, 2019 - New technique could expedite cancer diagnosis, lead to better patient outcomes
February 21, 2019 - New map of infant brain may aid early diagnosis of autism
February 21, 2019 - Human consciousness depends on the brain’s ability to maintain dynamics of neural activity
February 21, 2019 - Harmony Biosciences Announces File Acceptance Of Its New Drug Application For Pitolisant
February 21, 2019 - Medications could fill treatment gap for adolescents with obesity
February 21, 2019 - New antibiotics are desperately needed: Machine learning could help | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new computer game for dementia carers
February 21, 2019 - University of Dundee partners with Takeda to develop new treatments for tau pathology
Survey estimates caregiving costs for family members

Survey estimates caregiving costs for family members

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

“Informal care” is the term used in medicine to describe unpaid care provided by family and friends. It’s an important lifeline for millions of older adults in the U.S. who need day-to-day help with shopping, cooking, cleaning, eating, taking medicine, looking after their own daily well-being, and many other activities essential to our health and quality of life as we age.

In the U.S., more than 35 million people provided informal care to someone 50-years-old and older in 2015. We usually understand the costs associated with a doctor, nurse, or other healthcare worker providing professional care to older adults. However, we don’t understand what the true costs are when older adults are cared for by family members or friends. In part, that’s because most studies have focused on “direct” healthcare costs (the expenses associated with professional help/treatment). However, these studies have ignored the “indirect” costs associated with informal care.

When the costs of informal care are accounted for, most studies usually multiply the hours of informal care by the wage that a formal home healthcare provider would earn. But this doesn’t reflect the true cost of informal care. Informal caregivers often give up other activities such as leisure or employment, for example. Studies haven’t examined the value of leisure time and the other important aspects of life people may give up when they care for a friend or family member.

In a new study, researchers focused on one of the most common caregiving arrangements: daughters between the ages of 40 and 70 who were likely to need to provide informal care to their mothers at some point in the near future. Participants were identified using the Health and Retirement Study, a survey conducted by the University of Michigan since 1992. Findings from this new analysis were published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

The researchers totaled the time the daughters spent in caregiving. They distinguished between light caregiving (providing fewer than 1,000 hours of care over a two-year period) and intensive caregiving (providing 1,000 or more hours of care). The daughters were also asked whether they worked full- or part-time outside their caregiving role.

The survey also asked the daughters about their mothers’ health. For example, it asked if their mothers needed help with “instrumental activities of daily living” (IADLs). IADLs include activities such as taking medicine or grocery shopping. The survey also asked if their mothers needed help with more general “activities of daily living” (ADLs), such as eating, bathing, and getting around. Daughters were also asked whether their mothers could be left alone for an hour or more, and whether their mothers were ever told by a doctor that they had a memory-related disease.

The researchers used these measures to define six states of health for the mothers:

  • Healthy
  • Has difficulty performing daily activities only
  • Has a memory-related disease only
  • Has difficulty performing daily activities and has a diagnosed memory-related disease
  • Cannot be left alone for an hour or more
  • Dead

The researchers noted that while there is a variety of health concerns that could make it difficult to leave an older person alone, two-thirds of the daughters said they could not leave their mothers unattended because of a doctor-diagnosed memory-related disease.

The researchers also said that the costs associated with care for a memory-related disease varied a great deal depending on whether the mother also had trouble performing daily activities. For example, caring for someone with memory-related disease but no ADL limitations cost approximately $163,000 over a two-year period. This is similar to the costs of providing care for a mother who only had ADL limitations ($167,000). However, when memory issues were paired with having difficulty performing ADLs, the costs of caregiving actually decreased to $144,000. On the other hand, when a mother cannot be left alone for more than one hour, caregiving costs rise to more than $200,000.

To put these costs in perspective, the average cost of a semi-private bed in a nursing home in 2017 was $85,775. This suggests that two years of nursing home care would cost $171,550.

The researchers concluded that their results suggest the costs of informal care to a daughter’s well-being are similar to the costs associated with full-time institutional care. Based on their study, the researchers believe that the impact of having unpaid family or friend caregivers differs depending on the health needs of the person receiving care. This is important for three reasons:

  • Providing informal care for someone with a memory-related health condition may be a different (sometimes more complex) experience than caring for someone who only needs assistance with physical limitations.
  • Memory-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), use a very large share of informal care.
  • Memory-related diseases currently affect more than 5 million Americans, and cases are predicted to double within the next 30 years.
Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles