Breaking News
February 19, 2019 - Scientists untangle how microbes manufacture key antibiotic compound
February 19, 2019 - Greater primary care physician supply associated with longer life spans
February 19, 2019 - HIV-1 protein suppresses immune response more broadly than thought
February 19, 2019 - For 2020 Dem Hopefuls, ‘Medicare-For-All’ Is A Defining Issue, However They Define It
February 19, 2019 - KU professor discusses promise of brain-computer interface to aid, restore communication
February 19, 2019 - Early marker of cardiac damage triggered by cancer treatment identified
February 19, 2019 - Antidepressant drug could save people from deadly sepsis, research suggests
February 19, 2019 - CRISPR technology creates pluripotent stem cells that are ‘invisible’ to the immune system
February 19, 2019 - Midlife Systemic Inflammation Linked to Later Cognitive Decline
February 19, 2019 - Therapy derived from parasitic worms downregulates proinflammatory pathways
February 19, 2019 - Antimicrobial reusable coffee cups are less likely to become contaminated with bacteria, study shows
February 19, 2019 - Harnessing the evolutionary games played by cancer cells to advance therapies
February 19, 2019 - AHA News: Heart Transplant Survivor Gets Wedding Proposal at Finish Line
February 19, 2019 - HIV hidden in patients’ cells can now be accurately measured
February 19, 2019 - Research finds reasons for sudden cardiac death in patients with stable ischemic disease
February 19, 2019 - New protocol could help physicians to rule out bacterial infections in infants
February 19, 2019 - Women experiencing miscarriage should be offered treatment choices
February 19, 2019 - New protocol can help identify febrile infants at low risk for serious bacterial infections
February 19, 2019 - Innovative way to block HIV runs into a roadblock
February 19, 2019 - Springer Nature with BCRF conduct pilot project to make their research datasets more accessible
February 19, 2019 - Study finds neuromelanin-sensitive MRI as potential biomarker for psychosis
February 19, 2019 - Improvements in cardiovascular care for elderly save billions in health care costs
February 19, 2019 - Chilean food regulations are changing food perceptions and purchasing habits, study suggests
February 19, 2019 - Index endoscopy results are crucial for assessment of Barrett’s patients
February 18, 2019 - Breast cancer screening age should be lowered to 35
February 18, 2019 - Brain synchronization depends on the language of communication
February 18, 2019 - Drug Company Payments Over Time May Influence Rx Practices
February 18, 2019 - Despite socioeconomic gains, black-white ‘health gap’ remains
February 18, 2019 - Researchers report progress in the treatment of aggressive brain tumors
February 18, 2019 - Scientists discover trigger that turns strep infections into devastating disease
February 18, 2019 - Scanning children’s teeth may predict future mental health issues
February 18, 2019 - Health Highlights: Feb. 14, 2019
February 18, 2019 - New knowledge could help predict and prevent depression
February 18, 2019 - More primary care physicians leads to longer life spans | News Center
February 18, 2019 - Study examines link between supply of primary care physicians and life expectancy
February 18, 2019 - New study assesses screen time in young children
February 18, 2019 - Patented IU discovery to treat ARDS has been optioned to Theratome Bio
February 18, 2019 - Software found to be four times better at monitoring ovarian cancer
February 18, 2019 - Male Y chromosomes not ‘genetic wastelands’
February 18, 2019 - Hormone therapy during gender transition may increase risk for cardiovascular events
February 18, 2019 - NICE renews accreditation for Advanced
February 18, 2019 - FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to Amplyx Pharmaceuticals for APX001 for Treatment of Cryptococcosis
February 18, 2019 - Molecule effective in killing tuberculosis bacteria
February 18, 2019 - Columbia researchers unravel why some glioblastomas respond to immunotherapy
February 18, 2019 - Men who are able to do ten push-ups are less likely to have a stroke
February 18, 2019 - Blood-brain barrier disruption could lead to age-related cognitive decline
February 18, 2019 - Combination of PARP inhibitor and immunotherapy results in tumor regression in SCLC mouse models
February 18, 2019 - Heavy smoking could lead to vision loss, study finds
February 18, 2019 - New diagnostic test for malaria uses spit, not blood
February 18, 2019 - New therapeutic molecules show promise in reversing memory loss related to depression, aging
February 18, 2019 - Darla Shine joins anti-vaccination campaigners
February 18, 2019 - New study outlines sex-specific issues in ischemic heart disease
February 18, 2019 - Drug combinations could become first-line treatment for metastatic kidney cancer
February 18, 2019 - Lifetime adversity, increased neural processing during trauma combine to intensify core PTSD symptoms
February 18, 2019 - HRQoL Scores Decrease With Treatment Line in Multiple Myeloma
February 18, 2019 - Convincing evidence that type 2 diabetes is a cause of erectile dysfunction
February 18, 2019 - Study offers implications of advanced age in evaluation, management of ischemic heart disease
February 18, 2019 - Children from homes with flame-retardant sofa have high SVOC concentration in their blood
February 18, 2019 - Art Institute of Chicago announces results of research on five terracotta sculptures
February 18, 2019 - New PET/CT tracer shows high detection rate for diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism
February 18, 2019 - Smoking may blight immune response against melanoma and reduce survival
February 18, 2019 - How Inactivity and Junk Food Can Harm Your Brain
February 18, 2019 - Diabetes tops common conditions for frequent geriatric emergency patients
February 18, 2019 - Longer-lived sperm produces offspring with healthier lifespans
February 18, 2019 - New dental adhesive prevents tooth decay around orthodontic brackets
February 18, 2019 - New eHealth tool shows potential to improve quality of asthma care
February 18, 2019 - New Australian initiative helps emergency clinicians to improve patient care
February 17, 2019 - Apellis Pharmaceuticals’ APL-2 Receives Fast Track Designation from the FDA for the Treatment of Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
February 17, 2019 - Researchers identify faulty ‘brake’ that interferes with heart muscle’s ability to contract and relax
February 17, 2019 - Support from trusted adults can reduce risk of dying in suicidal teens, finds study
February 17, 2019 - Heart attack awareness improved since 2008
February 17, 2019 - Exercise gives a better brain boost to older men than women
February 17, 2019 - New research disproves previous assumptions of how looks influence personality
February 17, 2019 - Cannabis use as a teenager linked to depression later in life
February 17, 2019 - Sinks by Toilets in ICU Patient Rooms Harbor Harmful Bacteria
February 17, 2019 - Cancer cells’ plasticity makes them harder to stop
February 17, 2019 - Young cannabis users have increased risk of depression and suicidal behavior
February 17, 2019 - Tasmanian Devils Likely to Survive Cancer Scourge
February 17, 2019 - Neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade seems effective in glioblastoma
February 17, 2019 - Personal, social factors play role in enabling sustainable return to work after ill health
New therapeutic vaccine helps immune cells fight HPV-related head and neck cancer

New therapeutic vaccine helps immune cells fight HPV-related head and neck cancer

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A therapeutic vaccine can boost antibodies and T cells, helping them infiltrate tumors and fight off human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania tested the immunotherapy approach in two groups of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa) and found 86 percent showed elevated T cell activity. It is also the first study to show that the vaccine can help immune cells infiltrate tumors. The study also describes one patient who received the vaccine on the trial, developed metastatic disease seven months later, then was treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and has been in remission for more than two years. Researchers published their findings in Clinical Cancer Research today.

HNSCCa is a cancer that develops in the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat. Smoking and tobacco use are known causes, but the number of cases related to HPV infection–a sexually transmitted infection that is so common, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) says almost all sexually active adults will contract it at some point in their lifetimes–is among the fastest growing cancer types. The CDC estimates 70 percent of all head and neck cancers in the United States are now HPV-related. While there are many types of HPV, the HPV 16 and 18 subtypes are most commonly associated with cancer. Many of patients with this type of HNSCCa have good outcomes from treatment that includes surgery or chemotherapy and radiation. For patients who don’t respond to treatment or who develop metastatic disease, anti-PD-1 therapy is approved, but only helps about 15 percent of patients.

“We wanted to know if this vaccine can boost the immune systems of patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer, potentially opening the door for better response rates to other existing therapies, and our findings show that we can,” said the study’s lead author Charu Aggarwal, MD, MPH, an assistant professor of Hematology-Oncology in Penn’s Perelman School of Medicine.

There are other preventative HPV vaccines recommended for girls and boys. The vaccine used in this clinical trial is different from the preventative vaccines, which can prevent but cannot treat cancer. The vaccine in this study, known as MEDI0457, is a DNA vaccine that can have a therapeutic benefit.

Researchers gave four doses of MEDI0457 to 21 patients separated into two different groups. One group received a dose before surgery, followed by three doses after surgery. The second group received four doses following chemotherapy and radiation. Eighteen out of the 21 patients showed elevated T cell activity that lasted at least three months after the final vaccine dose, meaning the immune effect persisted for at least six months from the start of immunotherapy. Five tumors were biopsied both before and after one dose of the vaccine, and there was evidence of T cells reacting with antigens contained in the vaccine in all five “after” samples.

“We have not seen that kind of infiltration with just one dose of a vaccine before,” Aggarwal said. “These findings open the door for utilizing targeted immunotherapy approaches against specific cancer causing targets like HPV.”

The vaccine was also very well tolerated. Patients had arm pain at the site of the injection, but there were no reports of any serious side effects.

The authors also specifically described the case of one patient on the trial from the cohort that received a dose of the vaccine pre-surgery. That patient developed a metastatic recurrence seven months after treatment, at which point he received the PD-1 inhibitor Nivolumab and went on to have a complete response. Now two years later, he still shows no signs of disease. “This response suggests the vaccine may, in some manner, prime the immune system, potentially boosting the effects of subsequent anti-PD-1 therapy,” Aggarwal said.

This unique case was one of the main drivers of a Penn-led, multi-site clinical trial which is now enrolling patients. It combines the vaccine with anti-PD-1 therapy for patients with metastatic HPV-associated head and neck cancer.

“These are very important and unique results, and the next step is already underway looking at combining this vaccine with other immune therapies,” said Roger B. Cohen, MD, a professor of Hematology-Oncology at Penn and Associate Director of Clinical Research in the Abramson Cancer Center. “We think our results from the single patient who is currently disease free suggest that the clinical impact of a combined vaccine and PD-1 antibody approach may be profound if it can be confirmed in ongoing and planned clinical trials.” Cohen helped design the study published in Clinical Cancer Research and was a co-author.

Source:

https://www.pennmedicine.org/news/news-releases/2018/september/dna-vaccine-leads-to-immune-responses-in-hpv-related-head-and-neck-cancer

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles