Breaking News
December 19, 2018 - Researchers uncover genes that play a key role in the inactivation of X chromosomes
December 19, 2018 - The case for the federal minister of health to recall them
December 19, 2018 - Regular theatre and cinema visits keeps depression away in seniors finds study
December 19, 2018 - Personalization techniques give a new lease of life to anticancer vaccines
December 19, 2018 - Research opens door to development of drug or vaccine for late-onset Alzheimer’s
December 19, 2018 - Single workout can boost metabolism for days
December 19, 2018 - UI study leads to better understanding of signaling capacity between neurons
December 19, 2018 - Gut microbiome plays role in immune system regulation, study finds
December 19, 2018 - How MAPK translocation leads to drug resistance in melanoma
December 19, 2018 - Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. linked with occasional use
December 19, 2018 - Mind-body exercises may improve cognition in older adults
December 19, 2018 - Hepatitis C drug can eliminate chikungunya, yellow fever virus
December 19, 2018 - Separating male and female mice changes the way they smell, shows study
December 19, 2018 - FDA Approves Genentech’s Tecentriq in Combination With Avastin and Chemotherapy for the Initial Treatment of Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
December 19, 2018 - Mediterranean Diet for Osteoarthritis | About OA
December 19, 2018 - Successful bladder repair using silk fibroid scaffolds
December 19, 2018 - Quidel receives CE mark to use Sofia 2 Lyme+ Fluorescent Immunoassay with Sofia 2 analyzer
December 19, 2018 - Horizon Discovery partners with C4XD to validate novel synthetic lethal oncology targets
December 19, 2018 - Research suggests a promising therapeutic target to treat or prevent metabolic disorders
December 19, 2018 - Split liver transplants could save children on wait list finds study
December 19, 2018 - Michigan-based food manufacturer ordered to discontinue operations after recurrent food safety violations
December 19, 2018 - HPV discovery could lead to new treatments for cervical cancer
December 19, 2018 - Real-time neurofeedback controls Parkinson’s brainwaves
December 19, 2018 - Incorrect prescribing warnings in electronic prescribing systems
December 19, 2018 - New $1.6 million NIH grant supports study on a gene vital to circadian rhythms
December 19, 2018 - Racial Disparities Seen Among Teens Undergoing Flu Vaccination
December 19, 2018 - To resolve inflammation, location matters
December 19, 2018 - Dancing could help older women to perform their daily tasks
December 19, 2018 - Research identifies new therapeutic target for cancer treatment and tissue regeneration
December 19, 2018 - Energy costs, social isolation contribute to health risk of older adults in extreme weather
December 19, 2018 - Potential combination therapy against rare disease of the bone marrow could improve treatment
December 19, 2018 - Researchers aim to improve cognition, reverse weight gain in schizophrenia
December 19, 2018 - UC San Diego Health offers new DRG stimulation device for phantom limb pain
December 19, 2018 - Study examines relationship between growth restriction and risk of childhood mortality
December 19, 2018 - New study provides insights on increased risk of suicide in young patients visiting ED
December 19, 2018 - AHA: Thyroid Problems Linked to Worsening Heart Failure
December 19, 2018 - World-first coeliac disease vaccine enters Phase 2 trials
December 19, 2018 - RNA sequencing offers novel insights into the microbiome
December 19, 2018 - A promising, effective vaccine for common respiratory disease
December 19, 2018 - Protein may slow progression of emphysema, study finds
December 19, 2018 - Studying atrial fibrillation — and exploring new frontiers in precision health
December 19, 2018 - A New Way To Get College Students Through A Psychiatric Crisis — And Back To School
December 19, 2018 - Optum, UnitedHealthcare take action to help people affected by North Carolina winter storms
December 18, 2018 - Weight change in middle-aged, elderly Chinese Singaporeans related to increased risk of death
December 18, 2018 - Immune cells sacrifice themselves to protect us from invading bacteria
December 18, 2018 - Watching brain cells fire, with a twist of gravitational waves
December 18, 2018 - 2018 in Review
December 18, 2018 - Getting the Most Out of the CLARITY Technique
December 18, 2018 - NVF shoes provide a viable option for track and road racing
December 18, 2018 - CRISPR may restore effectiveness of chemotherapies used to treat lung cancer
December 18, 2018 - New app accurately measures and charts progression of skin wounds
December 18, 2018 - Persistent Discrimination ID’d Among Physician Mothers
December 18, 2018 - Cellphone technology developed to detect HIV
December 18, 2018 - A Stanford doctor hits the field with the 49ers — as their airway management physician
December 18, 2018 - The Rise of Anxiety Baking
December 18, 2018 - Just one night of sleep deprivation increases the urge to eat
December 18, 2018 - Study reveals mechanism behind failed remyelination in MS
December 18, 2018 - New genetic testing method increases the precision of biomarker analysis
December 18, 2018 - Simple technique to effectively treat underdiagnosed cause of debilitating chest pain
December 18, 2018 - Barbershop-based medical intervention can successfully lower blood pressure, new data shows
December 18, 2018 - Food labels have caused changes in consumers’ intake and industry’s use of key additives
December 18, 2018 - Sickest children could benefit from split liver transplants
December 18, 2018 - Scientists create patient-specific model to identify most effective treatment for appendix cancer
December 18, 2018 - ‘Little Foot’ endocast reveals a small brain combining ape-like and human-like features
December 18, 2018 - New therapy for childhood blindness shows ‘very promising’ results
December 18, 2018 - Researchers discover promising new compound against Buruli ulcer
December 18, 2018 - Study finds significant use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa
December 18, 2018 - California Farm Implicated in Outbreak of E. coli Tied to Romaine Lettuce
December 18, 2018 - Mobile health has power to transform HIV/AIDS nursing
December 18, 2018 - Celiac Vaccine in Clinical Trials at Columbia
December 18, 2018 - Research into mental health first aid prompts practical guidance and resources for workplace
December 18, 2018 - Researcher conducts study to investigate peripheral blood markers of Alzheimer’s disease
December 18, 2018 - Researchers identify link between mucus in the small airways and pulmonary fibrosis
December 18, 2018 - EU Commission’s Health Policy Platform to host EKHA program on transplantation
December 18, 2018 - Survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma have high risk of developing solid tumors
December 18, 2018 - Small changes to cafeteria design can get kids to eat healthier, new assessment tool finds
December 18, 2018 - From Machines to Cyclic Compounds
December 18, 2018 - New study reveals best assessment tools to establish delirium severity
December 18, 2018 - Rice University scientists develop synthetic protein switches to control electron flow
December 18, 2018 - Home-based pulmonary function monitoring for teens with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
UC Davis researchers take critical step in developing more effective Salmonella vaccine

UC Davis researchers take critical step in developing more effective Salmonella vaccine

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

UC Davis researchers announce in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week a breakthrough in understanding which cells afford optimal protection against Salmonella infection–a critical step in developing a more effective and safe vaccine against a bacterium that annually kills an estimated one million people worldwide.

Professor Stephen McSorley, interim director of the Center for Comparative Medicine, led a collaborative group of scientists from the University of Melbourne, Australia, the University of Connecticut and UC Davis. They evaluated the difference between circulating and non-circulating memory T cells in providing immunity to Salmonella infection in mice models.

“What everyone has been focused on in immunology, not just in addressing Salmonella, but all infectious diseases for the past 50 years or so, has been antibody and T cell responses,” McSorley said. “What hasn’t been realized until very recently is there are actually two different categories of T cells–those that circulate through tissues in the body and those that never move and are known as tissue resident or non-circulating memory cells.”

Since non-circulating memory T cells were discovered, McSorley said there’s been a rush in different disease models to understand whether they are important or not–in cancer and infectious diseases. It seems in some models they are very important; in others, they are less so.

“It’s a new cell population we haven’t looked at before and they’re very effective so we need to learn more about them,” McSorley said. “They may be part of the answer to developing vaccines against a variety of pathogens.”

The team focused on these non-circulating memory T cells to better understand how well they protected against reinfection from Salmonella Typhi, a strain that causes life-threatening enteric fever commonly in Africa and parts of Asia. Other strains of Salmonella are capable of causing gastroenetritis or invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis (NTS), an emerging disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Enteric fever and NTS can be fatal in 20-25 percent of infected individuals without access to medical care.

The researchers transferred circulating and non-circulating memory T cells from mice previously vaccinated into naïve mice. Thanks to fluorescent markers, they were then able to track which of the T cells offered protection against Salmonella infection. They showed that vaccine-mediated protection requires a non-circulating population of liver memory cells that does not circulate through the rest of the body. The unexpected requirement for these liver memory T cells means that generating these cells will form the basis of future vaccines for typhoid and NTS.

Current Salmonella vaccines limited

NTS has really emerged in Africa in the last 10 years, McSorley said, mainly in young children, the elderly and HIV positive individuals–basically people with compromised immune systems. They get a strain that would normally cause gastroenteritis, but in these individuals, it causes systemic infection and can kill them.

“These forms of disease are really impactful for resource-poor communities in Asia and Africa where the vaccines are either nonexistent or terrible,” McSorley said. “They are diseases of poverty.”

Although there are two vaccines currently available for Salmonella, neither are practical for use in these countries and they only protect about 50 percent of people immunized.

“The goal of our lab is to understand the mechanisms of protective immunity in mice to learn tricks of the immune system and then develop a vaccine that could replicate that to use for kids and people who live in these areas,” he said. “We found that you absolutely need these non-circulating T cells to protect against Salmonella. That’s an important milestone because if you’re going to make a vaccine, you have to know what you’re trying to induce with that vaccine. Now that we know these forms of T cells exist and protect against Salmonella, the next goal is to try to develop synthetic ways to induce them to make a vaccine.”

McSorley said they have some ideas about how to do that and that’s where the next phase of their research is going–to try and take vaccine components in a mouse model to specifically focus on these non-circulating cells and see if they can induce them.

“If we can learn how to better induce them and if we can apply that to a new Salmonella vaccine, it should be more efficient at providing immunity than previous vaccines.”

Source:

http://blogs.ucdavis.edu/egghead/2018/09/24/breakthrough-designing-better-salmonella-vaccine/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles