Breaking News
May 3, 2019 - Vaping and Smoking May Signal Greater Motivation to Quit
May 3, 2019 - Dementia looks different in brains of Hispanics
May 3, 2019 - Short-Staffed Nursing Homes See Drop In Medicare Ratings
May 3, 2019 - Study of teens with eating disorders explores how substance users differ from non-substance users
May 3, 2019 - Scientists develop new video game that may help in the study of Alzheimer’s
May 3, 2019 - Arc Bio introduces Galileo Pathogen Solution product line at ASM Clinical Virology Symposium
May 3, 2019 - Cornell University study uncovers relationship between starch digestion gene and gut bacteria
May 3, 2019 - How to Safely Use Glucose Meters and Test Strips for Diabetes
May 3, 2019 - Anti-inflammatory drugs ineffective for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease
May 3, 2019 - Study tracks Pennsylvania’s oil and gas waste-disposal practices
May 3, 2019 - Creating a better radiation diagnostic test for astronauts
May 3, 2019 - Vegans are often deficient in these four nutrients
May 3, 2019 - PPDC announces seed grants to develop medical devices for children
May 3, 2019 - Study maps out the frequency and impact of water polo head injuries
May 3, 2019 - Research on Reddit identifies risks associated with unproven treatments for opioid addiction
May 3, 2019 - Good smells may help ease tobacco cravings
May 3, 2019 - Medical financial hardship found to be very common among people in the United States
May 3, 2019 - Researchers develop multimodal system for personalized post-stroke rehabilitation
May 3, 2019 - Study shows significant mortality benefit with CABG over percutaneous coronary intervention
May 3, 2019 - Will gene-editing of human embryos ever be justifiable?
May 3, 2019 - FDA Approves Dengvaxia (dengue vaccine) for the Prevention of Dengue Disease in Endemic Regions
May 3, 2019 - Why Tonsillitis Keeps Coming Back
May 3, 2019 - Fighting the opioid epidemic with data
May 3, 2019 - Maggot sausages may soon be a reality
May 3, 2019 - Deletion of ATDC gene prevents development of pancreatic cancer in mice
May 2, 2019 - Targeted Therapy Promising for Rare Hematologic Cancer
May 2, 2019 - Alzheimer’s disease is a ‘double-prion disorder,’ study shows
May 2, 2019 - Reservoir bugs: How one bacterial menace makes its home in the human stomach
May 2, 2019 - Clinical, Admin Staff From Cardiology Get Sneak Peek at Epic
May 2, 2019 - Depression increases hospital use and mortality in children
May 2, 2019 - Vicon and NOC support CURE International to create first gait lab in Ethiopia
May 2, 2019 - Researchers use 3D printer to make paper organs
May 2, 2019 - Viral infection in utero associated with behavioral abnormalities in offspring
May 2, 2019 - U.S. Teen Opioid Deaths Soaring
May 2, 2019 - Opioid distribution data should be public
May 2, 2019 - In the Spotlight: “I’m learning every single day”
May 2, 2019 - 2019 Schaefer Scholars Announced
May 2, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ Bye-Bye, ACA, And Hello ‘Medicare-For-All’?
May 2, 2019 - Study describes new viral molecular evasion mechanism used by cytomegalovirus
May 2, 2019 - SLU study suggests a more equitable way for Medicare reimbursement
May 2, 2019 - Scientists discover first gene involved in lower urinary tract obstruction
May 2, 2019 - Researchers identify 34 genes associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer
May 2, 2019 - Many low-income infants receive formula in the first few days of life, finds study
May 2, 2019 - Global study finds high success rate for hip and knee replacements
May 2, 2019 - Taking depression seriously: What is it?
May 2, 2019 - With Head Injuries Mounting, Will Cities Put Their Feet Down On E-Scooters?
May 2, 2019 - Scientists develop small fluorophores for tracking metabolites in living cells
May 2, 2019 - Study casts new light into how mothers’ and babies’ genes influence birth weight
May 2, 2019 - Researchers uncover new brain mechanisms regulating body weight
May 2, 2019 - Organ-on-chip systems offered to Asia-Pacific regions by Sydney’s AXT
May 2, 2019 - Adoption of new rules drops readmission penalties against safety net hospitals
May 2, 2019 - Kids and teens who consume zero-calorie sweetened beverages do not save calories
May 2, 2019 - Improved procedure for cancer-related erectile dysfunction
May 2, 2019 - Hormone may improve social behavior in autism
May 2, 2019 - Alzheimer’s disease may be caused by infectious proteins called prions
May 2, 2019 - Even Doctors Can’t Navigate Our ‘Broken Health Care System’
May 2, 2019 - Study looks at the impact on criminal persistence of head injuries
May 2, 2019 - Honey ‘as high in sugars as table sugar’
May 2, 2019 - Innovations to U.S. food system could help consumers in choosing healthy foods
May 2, 2019 - FDA Approves Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) as First Treatment for All Genotypes of Hepatitis C in Pediatric Patients
May 2, 2019 - Women underreport prevalence and intensity of their own snoring
May 2, 2019 - Concussion summit focuses on science behind brain injury
May 2, 2019 - Booker’s Argument For Environmental Justice Stays Within The Lines
May 2, 2019 - Cornell research explains increased metastatic cancer risk in diabetics
May 2, 2019 - Mount Sinai study provides fresh insights into cellular pathways that cause cancer
May 2, 2019 - Researchers to study link between prenatal pesticide exposures and childhood ADHD
May 2, 2019 - CoGEN Congress 2019: Speakers’ overviews
May 2, 2019 - A new strategy for managing diabetic macular edema in people with good vision
May 2, 2019 - Sagent Pharmaceuticals Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection, USP, 60mg/2mL (30mg per mL) Due to Lack of Sterility Assurance
May 2, 2019 - Screen time associated with behavioral problems in preschoolers
May 2, 2019 - Hormone reduces social impairment in kids with autism | News Center
May 2, 2019 - Researchers synthesize peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with low cost and superior catalytic activity
May 2, 2019 - Study results of a potential drug to treat Type 2 diabetes in children announced
May 2, 2019 - Multigene test helps doctors to make effective treatment decisions for breast cancer patients
May 2, 2019 - UNC School of Medicine initiative providing unique care to dementia patients
May 2, 2019 - Nestlé Health Science and VHP join forces to launch innovative COPES program for cancer patients
May 2, 2019 - Study examines how our brain generates consciousness and loses it during anesthesia
May 2, 2019 - Transition Support Program May Aid Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes
May 2, 2019 - Study shows how neutrophils exacerbate atherosclerosis by inducing smooth muscle-cell death
May 2, 2019 - Research reveals complexity of how we make decisions
Clemson University researcher reveals insights into rapid spread of homemade steroids

Clemson University researcher reveals insights into rapid spread of homemade steroids

A Clemson University researcher recently published insights into homemade steroids and steroid trafficking through a study of federal court cases. The research details why homemade steroids became popular and how online tools and cryptocurrency have allowed for their rapid spread.

Bryan Denham, Campbell Professor of Sports Communication in Clemson’s communication department, recently published the research in Contemporary Drug Problems. Considering the impact of these homemade drugs has been felt nationwide, Denham said it is imperative that athletes at all levels in every sport realize what they can easily get online may still be putting their athletics careers — and their lives — in jeopardy.

“From the standpoint of public health, purchasers of black-market steroids should understand that while homebrewers may produce actual steroids, the substances may contain unintended contaminants and inconsistent levels of active ingredients,” Denham said. “In that regard, purchasing steroids is no different than buying other illicit substances, especially on the Internet.”

Denham’s research examined 63 cases involving 184 defendants in 41 U.S. District Courts across a five-year period beginning Jan. 1, 2013, and ending Dec. 31, 2017. In 27 of the 63 cases, defendants had obtained steroids or raw materials from the Far East to increase both volume and profit.

Denham said that when the Internet became publicly accessible, underground sellers quickly capitalized on the technology to develop a new delivery system. This caused widespread counterfeiting and many sellers therefore began to purchase their own pill presses to manufacture steroids and other substances. Homebrewers currently use bodybuilding websites and chat rooms, as well as word of mouth, to sell their products.

In one of the cases Denham examined, defendants sold steroids and other substances using the drug marketplaces Silk Road and Evolution Marketplace, ensuring anonymity in transactions through Bitcoin. The 2017 case involved 1,300 transactions and gross proceeds of $1.9 million, with substances including methamphetamine, hydrocodone, cocaine, marijuana and steroids.

Denham also discussed Internet pharmacies, noting that on at least two occasions, the United States Government Accountability Office has investigated rogue pharmacies operating on the Internet. In 2014, the office estimated that 36,000 rogue pharmacies operated internationally, using sophisticated methods to ship FDA-unapproved drugs, controlled substances and counterfeit pharmaceuticals to the U.S.

“When authorities succeed in shutting down one source of illicit drugs, others quickly emerge,” Denham said.

Discussing geographic dispersion, Denham said the South Atlantic Division, one of nine divisions with district courts that heard steroid cases, accounted for approximately one in four cases. Defendants appeared in court at a time when law-enforcement agencies had cracked down on Florida “pill mills,” known for dispensing large amounts of prescription drugs in cash-only transactions.

In fact, as part of his study, Denham came across the high-profile Biogenesis case in which an individual posing as a physician prescribed performance-enhancing drugs to high-school athletes and high-profile Major League Baseball players.

Paradoxically, while law-enforcement agencies experienced some success in cracking down on pill mills, Denham said nearly one in five cases he studied involved former law-enforcement personnel as defendants. Denham said there is often an unstated assumption that those in management ranks will not ask questions, and if the problem is left unresolved, buyers of steroids can very quickly turn into future sellers.

“The use of steroids in law enforcement does occur, which of course is a problem because obtaining steroids without a prescription from a licensed physician is illegal,” Denham said. “Additionally, someone who initially buys the drugs from that person may begin selling, and that may lead to selling other substances.”

In the United States, anabolic steroids have been classified as Schedule III Controlled Substances since 1990. This means the substances have limited medicinal use and require a prescription from a licensed physician.

Denham stressed the importance of keeping the findings of his study in appropriate perspective, as the cases he analyzed appeared in federal district courts across a five-year period. Cases are also prosecuted in courts at the state level, and most states have their own policies on illicit substances.

Source:

http://newsstand.clemson.edu/mediarelations/clemson-researcher-warns-of-spread-of-homemade-steroids/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles