Breaking News
February 21, 2019 - Are teens getting high on social media? The surprising study seeking the pot-Instagram link
February 21, 2019 - Stanford expands biobank services | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Scientists identify link between drinking contexts and early onset intoxication among adolescents
February 21, 2019 - Strong social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women
February 21, 2019 - Rapid expansion of interventions could prevent up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer within 50 years
February 21, 2019 - Motif Bio Receives Complete Response Letter From The FDA
February 21, 2019 - Researchers map previously unknown disease in children
February 21, 2019 - A skeptical look at popular diets: Going gluten-free
February 21, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ How Safe Are Your Supplements?
February 21, 2019 - Anticipatory signals in eye movements can help measure attentive capacity, learning with greater precision
February 21, 2019 - Evening exercise does not negatively affect sleep, may also reduce hunger
February 21, 2019 - Artificial intelligence technique can be used to identify alcohol misuse in trauma setting
February 21, 2019 - Overweight, obesity in adolescence associated with increased risk of renal cancer later in life
February 21, 2019 - BGU develops new AI platform for monitoring and predicting ALS progression
February 21, 2019 - Researchers discover a new promising target to improve HIV vaccines
February 21, 2019 - Brief Anesthesia in Infancy Does Not Mar Neurodevelopment
February 21, 2019 - Gaming system helps with autism diagnosis
February 21, 2019 - Heart Disease: Six Things Women Should Know
February 21, 2019 - More States Say Doctors Must Offer Overdose Reversal Drug Along With Opioids
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explore case studies focused on industries that kill more people than employed
February 21, 2019 - Only half of GP practice buildings are fit for purpose
February 21, 2019 - Intense exercise, fasting and hormones can enhance waste-protein removal, study shows
February 21, 2019 - Scientists can monitor brain activity to predict epileptic seizures few minutes in advance
February 21, 2019 - Study quantifies hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of Ugt isoforms in rats
February 21, 2019 - ‘Apple-Shaped’ Body? ‘Pear-Shaped’? Your Genes May Tell
February 21, 2019 - Can we repair the brain? The promise of stem cell technologies for treating Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - Trump Plan To Beat HIV Hits Rough Road In Rural America
February 21, 2019 - PENTAX Medical introduces new electrosurgical and argon plasma coagulation platforms
February 21, 2019 - Trump plan to beat HIV hits rough road in rural America
February 21, 2019 - Eating blueberries every day could help decrease blood pressure
February 21, 2019 - ‘No Second Chances’ report calls for new measures to combat cardiovascular disease in Australia
February 21, 2019 - Mayo clinic researchers discuss local case studies of leprosy
February 21, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate key role of salt in allergic immune reactions
February 21, 2019 - Experts propose revising the criteria for diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - The med student and the machine
February 21, 2019 - Hey, Hey! Ho, Ho! Is Striking For School Nurses The Way To Go?
February 21, 2019 - Latest research encourages children to move out and learn through physical activity
February 21, 2019 - Proper oral hygiene and regular visits to dentist can promote heart health
February 21, 2019 - New, versatile technique for remote control of transplanted cells in Parkinson’s
February 21, 2019 - Why melanoma tumors in the brain may be worse?
February 21, 2019 - New project aims to improve lung disease care in Appalachia
February 21, 2019 - Drug increases melanin production in some people with albinism
February 21, 2019 - Over 1 in 3 adults miss the mark on protein, finds study
February 21, 2019 - CymaBay Therapeutics Announces Seladelpar Granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the FDA for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis
February 21, 2019 - A correlation between obesity and income has only developed in the past 30 years
February 21, 2019 - Baby, then work: An effort to help resident-parents in emergency medicine
February 21, 2019 - Heavy cigarette smoking could damage vision, say researchers
February 21, 2019 - Some drug combinations may be more effective than others for schizophrenic patients
February 21, 2019 - Combination of common antibiotics can eliminate multi-drug resistant E. coli
February 21, 2019 - Number of calls to U.S. Poison Control regarding kratom exposure increased
February 21, 2019 - New computational tool searches for factors that cause specific diseases
February 21, 2019 - New method to assess effectiveness of psychotherapies for social anxiety disorder
February 21, 2019 - New technology measures hormones that influence reproductive health efficiently
February 21, 2019 - Bat influenza viruses could potentially attack the cells of humans and livestock
February 21, 2019 - Immunotherapeutic antibody therapy to kill cancer has now progressed to patient testing
February 21, 2019 - Johns Hopkins scientists find new compound that may prevent reperfusion injury
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new way to deliver treatment for cartilage regeneration
February 21, 2019 - Study sheds new light on left ventricular dysfunction in ischemic heart disease
February 21, 2019 - New technique could expedite cancer diagnosis, lead to better patient outcomes
February 21, 2019 - New map of infant brain may aid early diagnosis of autism
February 21, 2019 - Human consciousness depends on the brain’s ability to maintain dynamics of neural activity
February 21, 2019 - Harmony Biosciences Announces File Acceptance Of Its New Drug Application For Pitolisant
February 21, 2019 - Medications could fill treatment gap for adolescents with obesity
February 21, 2019 - New antibiotics are desperately needed: Machine learning could help | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new computer game for dementia carers
February 21, 2019 - University of Dundee partners with Takeda to develop new treatments for tau pathology
February 21, 2019 - Influenza vaccine may be less effective in elderly patients, finds study
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explain why T cells lose their protective ability in inflamed tissues
February 21, 2019 - New optimization method rapidly analyzes nanomedicines for cancer treatment
February 21, 2019 - Viruses in the intestinal tracts can lead to islet autoimmunity and Type 1 diabetes
February 21, 2019 - Link between dietary fatty acid intake and hypertension found to be influenced by diabetes status
February 21, 2019 - FDA Approves Esperoct (turoctocog alfa pegol, N8-GP) for Hemophilia A
February 21, 2019 - ‘Boy erased’—why conversion therapies and ex-gay ministries should be outlawed
February 21, 2019 - Titia de Lange to give annual McCormick Lecture on March 8 | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Study reveals how helper T cells support memory cells to function optimally
February 21, 2019 - Autistic children with co-occurring ADHD have greater adaptive behavior impairments
February 21, 2019 - Elevated levels of key cellular process implicated in intestinal inflammation and IBD
February 20, 2019 - Over Half of Hip Replacements Expected to Last 25 Years
February 20, 2019 - Microscopic eye movements affect how we see contrast
February 20, 2019 - Computer vs. patient: Fighting for residents’ attention | News Center
Healthy fat cells uncouple obesity from diabetes

Healthy fat cells uncouple obesity from diabetes

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Corresponding authors, Dr. Sean Hartig, is on the left, and Natasha Chernis. Credit: Baylor College of Medicine

About 422 million people around the world, including more than 30 million Americans, have diabetes. Approximately ninety percent of them have type 2 diabetes. People with this condition cannot effectively use insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas that helps the body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy.

The inability to use insulin, called insulin resistance, results in increasing levels of blood sugar, which, if not controlled, can significantly raise the risk of major health problems such as blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, the World Health Organization estimated that 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Until recently, this type of diabetes was only seen in adults, but it is now also occurring increasingly and more frequently in children.

“Obesity is the most significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic conditions, and affects one in three adults worldwide,” said Dr. Sean Hartig, assistant professor of medicine and of molecular and cellular biology at Baylor College of Medicine. “Although medical consensus recommends making life style changes toward a healthy diet and increased physical activity to both prevent and help control diabetes, this strategy has shown to be difficult to implement and maintain by most people.”

Hartig and his colleagues are exploring alternative ways to control obesity and type 2 diabetes that may involve the use of therapies that would complement the current efforts to educate the public about healthy diets and exercise routines. To achieve this goal, they are studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in fat metabolism using both genetic mouse models and human tissues.

Subcutaneous white fat versus belly fat dictates metabolic health in obesity

Although obesity significantly increases the risk of diabetes, about 30 percent of obese people do not show insulin resistance and do not develop type 2 diabetes or other metabolic conditions, such as fatty liver disease. What leads to obesity while maintaining insulin sensitivity is not well understood; however, scientists know that the condition is associated with the body’s ability to expand the storage of subcutaneous white adipose (fat) tissue.

“Subcutaneous white fat represents 80 percent of all fat tissue in mice and people and it is stored in the hips, arms and legs. When energy intake (food) overwhelms the ability to store calories in subcutaneous white fat, fat ‘spills over’ into organs that are not specialized for storing fat, such as the liver, the pancreas and muscle,” said co-author Natasha Chernis, research technician at Baylor College of Medicine. “People who develop diabetes have more abdominal (belly) fat. Our idea is to find ways to expand subcutaneous white fat depots in obesity, so fat is not stored in places like the abdomen or the liver, where it can cause metabolic problems.”

Another key player in the obesity and diabetes puzzle is the immune system. Obesity leads to developing a low-grade inflammatory response that can interfere with the metabolic functions of subcutaneous white fat tissue. This inflammatory microenvironment likely disturbs this fat tissue’s ability to respond to insulin, contributing in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This is supported by findings that increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma, correlate with insulin resistance, reduced subcutaneous white fat expansion and accumulation of abdominal fat. However, this brings the question, what is different in obese individuals who do not develop insulin resistance and diabetes?

Another piece of the puzzle, miR-30a

“When we started this project six years ago, our goal was to better understand fat metabolism and identify potential ways to help people lose weight,” Hartig said. “We found a microRNA called miR-30a—a small non-coding RNA molecule that regulates gene expression—that could stimulate pathways important for fat metabolism. Originally, we thought that expressing miR-30a would lead to weight loss because it would be driving fat metabolism, but we observed something different. We found miR-30a did not correlate with leanness; instead, it was associated with a form of obesity in which subjects actually maintained insulin sensitivity.”

Hartig and his colleagues discovered that reduced miR-30a expression in fat tissue correlated with insulin resistance in both obese mice and obese humans. Interestingly, overexpressing miR-30a in subcutaneous white fat tissue of obese mice significantly improved insulin sensitivity, reduced levels of blood lipids and decreased buildup of fat in the liver without altering body weight. In addition, the researchers found that miR-30a expression reduced inflammation in subcutaneous white fat tissue.

“We have provided evidence that expression of miR-30a protects fat cells by attenuating inflammation derived from mediators such as interferon gamma and leads to improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice,” Hartig said.

These findings open the possibility of developing therapeutic entry ways for many forms of diabetes, not just diabetes aligned with obesity. For instance, targeting components of the immune system locally within adipose tissue may enable subcutaneous white fat to expand appropriately in lipodystrophies—conditions characterized by abnormal distribution of body fat—where diabetes occurs in patients without obesity.

“We are interested in this idea that we can uncouple obesity from co-morbidities such as heart disease and insulin resistance,” Hartig said. “It has become clear in the past 10 years that obesity doesn’t mean diabetes. We are interested in learning how to manipulate the inflammatory response inside fat tissue of people with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes so they expand the subcutaneous white fat deposits and become metabolically healthy.”

Read all the details of this study in the journal Diabetes.


Explore further:
Peptide improves glucose and insulin sensitivity, lowers weight in mice

More information:
Eun-Hee Koh et al, miR-30a Remodels Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation to Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obesity, Diabetes (2018). DOI: 10.2337/db17-1378

Journal reference:
Diabetes

Provided by:
Baylor College of Medicine

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles