Breaking News
April 24, 2019 - Making Laboratories More Efficient with the Most Modern LIMS on the Market
April 24, 2019 - Treating cancer patients with personalized, combination therapies improves outcomes
April 24, 2019 - Researchers engineer new molecules to help stop lung cancer
April 24, 2019 - Acupuncture can be a wonderful tool for preventing number of diseases
April 24, 2019 - Daily life disability before hip replacement may predict poor post-operative outcomes
April 24, 2019 - Study finds involuntary staying in housing estates to be a potential health risk
April 24, 2019 - Older kidney disease patients starting dialysis die at higher rates than previously thought
April 24, 2019 - Time-restricted eating shows promise for controlling blood glucose levels
April 24, 2019 - Research provides important insight on the brain-body connection
April 24, 2019 - In 10 Years, Half Of Middle-Income Elders Won’t Be Able To Afford Housing, Medical Care
April 24, 2019 - Researchers study how E. coli clones have become major cause of drug-resistant infections
April 24, 2019 - Bacterial and fungal toxins found in popular electronic cigarettes
April 24, 2019 - Factors affecting absorption of ‘sunshine vitamin’ during spring/summer months
April 24, 2019 - Texting helps improve medication adherence, health outcomes for patients with schizophrenia
April 24, 2019 - Cochrane Review looks at different ways to use nicotine replacement therapies
April 24, 2019 - New review on relationship between COPD and Type 2 diabetes
April 24, 2019 - Brain areas linked to memory and emotion aid odor navigation in humans
April 24, 2019 - Brain stimulation reverses age-related memory loss
April 24, 2019 - Amid Opioid Prescriber Crackdown, Health Officials Reach Out To Pain Patients
April 24, 2019 - $4 million NIH award will help establish UCI Skin Biology Resource-based Center
April 24, 2019 - Cancer drugs reprogram genes in breast tumors to prevent endocrine resistance, finds study
April 24, 2019 - Combination-imaging technique provides new window into macaque brain connections
April 24, 2019 - Researchers identify new allergen responsible for allergy to durum wheat
April 24, 2019 - Researchers define role of rare, influential cells in the bone marrow
April 24, 2019 - DNA rearrangement may predict poor outcomes in multiple myeloma
April 24, 2019 - FDA Approves Skyrizi (risankizumab-rzaa) for Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis
April 24, 2019 - Combination therapy might be beneficial in schizophrenia
April 24, 2019 - Blood test can help match cancer patients to early phase clinical trials
April 24, 2019 - Women tend to underreport snoring and underestimate its loudness
April 24, 2019 - Comprehensive molecular test introduced for diagnosis of malaria caused by P. vivax parasites
April 24, 2019 - New range prediction approach increases accuracy, safety and tolerability of proton therapy
April 24, 2019 - Need for Sedation Up for Regular Cannabis Users
April 24, 2019 - Lack of access to antibiotics is a major global health challenge
April 24, 2019 - New study provides better understanding on safety of deworming programs
April 24, 2019 - EEG used to detect impact of maternal stress on neurodevelopment in 2-month-old infants
April 24, 2019 - FDA Approves First Generic Naloxone Nasal Spray Against Opioid Overdose
April 24, 2019 - A new way of finding compounds that prevent aging
April 24, 2019 - Mechanical training makes synthetic hydrogels perform more like muscle
April 24, 2019 - Study provides new insights into regulatory T cells’ role in protecting against autoimmune disease
April 24, 2019 - Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes are at greater risk of preterm birth
April 24, 2019 - ‘Tummy tuck’ can be safely performed in obese patients with no increase in complications
April 23, 2019 - ‘First’ 3-D print of heart with human tissue, vessels unveiled
April 23, 2019 - Which blood-based method works best to detect TB?
April 23, 2019 - Gene therapy cures infants suffering from ‘bubble boy’ immune disease
April 23, 2019 - Chemical-sampling wristbands detect similar exposures across three continents
April 23, 2019 - Management of Residual Limb Pain
April 23, 2019 - Molecular clock influences immune cell responses
April 23, 2019 - On the importance of culture, partnerships and diversity at the Dean’s Lecture Series
April 23, 2019 - Siddhartha Mukherjee Receives Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing About Science
April 23, 2019 - Dengue mosquito poses greatest danger of spreading Zika virus in Australia
April 23, 2019 - Scientists identify 104 high-risk genes for schizophrenia
April 23, 2019 - Abdominal etching can help patients to get classic ‘six-pack abs’ physique
April 23, 2019 - Alvogen Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Fentanyl Transdermal System Due to Product Mislabeling
April 23, 2019 - Skype hypnotherapy is effective treatment for IBS
April 23, 2019 - The future hope of “flash” radiation cancer therapy
April 23, 2019 - Bicycling, Recycling, and Beyond: Public Safety to Host Shred Fest and Bike-to-Campus Day 
April 23, 2019 - Skipping breakfast linked with increased risk of death from heart disease
April 23, 2019 - Neuroscientists propose new theory about amyloid precursor protein connection in Alzheimer’s
April 23, 2019 - Mediterranean diet protects against overeating and obesity
April 23, 2019 - NUS scientists uncover novel biomarkers linked with ‘chemobrain’
April 23, 2019 - Novel ECCITE-seq technique expands multimodal single cell analysis
April 23, 2019 - Half of all American workplaces offer health and wellness programs
April 23, 2019 - Hypnosis may offer a genuine alternative to painkillers
April 23, 2019 - Sleep loss greatly interferes with job performance
April 23, 2019 - Study shows how elderberry fruit can help fight against influenza
April 23, 2019 - Parkinson’s sufferers regain mobility with new implant
April 23, 2019 - Perinatal Complications Tied to Childhood Social Anxiety
April 23, 2019 - Research reveals how immune cells help tumors escape body’s defenses
April 23, 2019 - UAB receives $17 million grant to explore immune cells in inaccessible tissues of the human body
April 23, 2019 - Opening blocked arteries may be lifesaver for older heart attack patients
April 23, 2019 - Yposkesi chairman to speak on ‘Manufacturing and the CDMO Perspective’ at Cell and Gene Meeting
April 23, 2019 - Listeria Outbreak Linked to Deli Meats, Cheeses in 4 States
April 23, 2019 - Scientists find another way HIV can hide from vaccines
April 23, 2019 - Improved WIC food packages reduced obesity risk for children, study finds
April 23, 2019 - EU ban on ‘meaty’ names for veggie food products would affect public sector
April 23, 2019 - KNAUER self-tests gender pay gap one month after Equal Pay Day
April 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study reports overdiagnosis of schizophrenia
April 23, 2019 - New approach to repair defects in fetal membranes could prevent life-long medical conditions
April 23, 2019 - Reviving the heart’s regenerative capacities using microRNAs
April 23, 2019 - New pediatric blood pressure guidelines can better predict kids at higher risk of heart disease
New tool may reveal how the brain structure impacts brain activity, human behavior

New tool may reveal how the brain structure impacts brain activity, human behavior

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The architecture of each person’s brain is unique, and differences may influence how quickly people can complete various cognitive tasks.

But how neuroanatomy impacts performance is largely an open question.

To learn more, scientists are developing a new tool — computational models of the brain — to simulate how the structure of the brain may impact brain activity and, ultimately, human behavior. The research focuses on interconnectivity within the brain, looking at how different regions are linked to and interact with one another (traits that vary between individuals).

In an initial proof-of-concept study, a team led by University at Buffalo mathematician Sarah Muldoon finds that this approach shows promise for understanding the interplay between brain structure and performance on language-related tasks. The research was published in PLOS Computational Biology on Oct. 17.

“We are creating these personalized brain network models to understand what the brain is doing, based on how connected different regions of a person’s brain are to one another,” says first author Kanika Bansal, a postdoctoral researcher jointly working at UB, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Columbia University.

“Models like this are powerful tools because they allow us to conduct ‘in silico’ experiments to understand brain function on a personal basis,” adds Muldoon, PhD, assistant professor of mathematics in the UB College of Arts and Sciences and a faculty member in UB’s Computational and Data-Enabled Science and Engineering and neuroscience programs.

The power of a personalized brain model

In the new study, researchers created data-driven mathematical models of the individual brains of 10 people based on diffusion spectrum images which capture the structural wiring of the subjects’ actual brains.

Scientists then used the models to learn about each person’s brain, including:

  • How easily the brain jumps into an active state when it’s stimulated.
  • Which brain regions become synchronized, exhibiting similar activity, when the left inferior frontal gyrus, an area of the brain important to language, is stimulated.

The research identified some relationships between these characteristics of the brain and how quickly people were able to carry out three language-demanding tasks: saying the first verb that came to mind when presented with a noun; filling in a missing word in a sentence; and reading a large number. (Each participant completed each activity multiple times before and after receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left inferior frontal gyrus.)

While small, the study demonstrates the potential of data-driven modeling for learning about the link between brain structure and task performance.

Possible applications in treating disease, enhancing performance

Developing personalized models of brain activity could not only improve neuroscience research, but also spur advancements in using brain stimulation to treat disease or enhancing human performance on various tasks.

“It’s important to create biologically inspired ways to predict individual responses to brain stimulation,” says co-author John Medaglia, PhD, assistant professor of psychology at Drexel University and adjunct assistant professor of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania. “The attractive idea here is that we can examine complex activity in each person’s brain networks. Then, we can define relatively simple measures that are strongly related to real-world performance. This balance between simulating complex processes and making simple predictions is necessary to drive brain stimulation research forward.”

“The Army has a challenge of creating Soldier systems at large scale for the thousands of military who protect our civilians around the world,” says co-author Jean Vettel, PhD, a senior science lead at ARL who is also affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Santa Barbara, “and this means that systems have to be designed for the most general skills across Soldiers. As exemplified in this work, ARL research strives to find new approaches to robustly quantify differences among Soldiers in a way that would allow development of individualized systems to capitalize on the unique expertise of each Soldier.”

In both medical treatment and task performance, understanding individuals’ brains — as opposed to the human brain in general — could have benefits, the authors say. This is because variations in the architecture and function of the brain may influence how the organ responds to neurostimulation, leading to different results for different people.

Danielle Bassett, Eduardo D. Glandt Faculty Fellow and associate professor of bioengineering and of electrical and systems engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, contributed to the study. She is also affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania departments of neurology, and physics and astronomy.

Source:

https://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2018/10/037.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles