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October 2018 Briefing – Pathology

October 2018 Briefing – Pathology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for October 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Barriers to Prostate Cancer Research in Black Men Identified

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 — A lack of understanding of terminology, health care system distrust, and a lack of prostate cancer knowledge are among the barriers to genomic testing for prostate cancer and prostate cancer research participation among black men, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text

Antibiotics, Acid Suppressants in Infancy May Up Obesity Risk

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 — Prescription of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications in early childhood is associated with an increased risk for obesity, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in Gut.

Abstract/Full Text

Genetic Risk Score IDs Breast CA Risk in Female Child CA Survivors

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31, 2018 — A polygenic risk score (PRS) can identify subsequent breast cancer risk among childhood survivors of cancer, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in Clinical Cancer Research.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

AMA Announces Initiative to Reinvent Physician Training

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 — The American Medical Association (AMA) today announced a new $15 million competitive grant initiative, the “Reimagining Residency” initiative, aimed at improving residency training.

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Guidelines Presented for Lumbar Puncture in Alzheimer’s Dx

TUESDAY, Oct. 30, 2018 — The Alzheimer’s Association has released appropriate-use criteria for lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis, according to a review article published online Oct. 10 in Alzheimer’s & Dementia.

Abstract/Full Text

Many Hospitals Noncompliant With Record Request Regulations

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 — Among top-ranked U.S. hospitals, data reveal discrepancies in information provided to patients regarding medical records release processes as well as noncompliance with state and federal regulations, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in JAMA Network Open.

Abstract/Full Text

Hypofractionated Radiation OK for Localized Prostate CA

MONDAY, Oct. 29, 2018 — A new clinical guideline for early-stage prostate cancer supports the use of shortened courses of radiation therapy, according to an article published in Practical Radiation Oncology.

Abstract/Full Text

Trump Administration Announces Plan to Cut Drug Prices

FRIDAY, Oct. 26, 2018 — In an effort to cut high drug costs, the prices paid by Medicare for certain prescription drugs would be based on those in other advanced industrial nations, according to a proposal announced Oct. 25 by the Trump administration.

HHS Study
New York Times Article

Pace of Change Has Accelerated in Alternative Payment Models

THURSDAY, Oct. 25, 2018 — The impact of alternative payment models (APMs) on physician practices has been described in a study published by the RAND Corp. and the American Medical Association.

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Arthritis in Adulthood Linked to Childhood Maltreatment

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 24, 2018 — The prevalence of arthritis is higher among adults who experience severe and/or frequent childhood maltreatment, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in Arthritis Care & Research.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

White House Unveils New Insurance Option for Small Firms

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 — A plan to allow small businesses to use tax-free accounts to provide health coverage for employees was announced today by the Trump administration.

AP News Article
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Intensive SBP Tx Cuts Kidney Damage Biomarkers in Incident CKD

TUESDAY, Oct. 23, 2018 — Patients with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the setting of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment have decreases rather than increases in kidney damage biomarkers, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

CDC: First U.S. Case of Rat-Borne Andes Virus Diagnosed

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 — The first confirmed U.S. case of a virus carried by South American rodents occurred earlier this year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

CNN Article
CDC Case Report

Bioinformatics Tool Can ID Source of Bloodstream Pathogens

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 — A streamlined bioinformatics tool can match bloodstream pathogens to a candidate source, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in Nature Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Triple Combo Regimens May Address Cause of Cystic Fibrosis

FRIDAY, Oct. 19, 2018 — Triple therapy with VX-659 or VX-445 combined with tezacaftor-ivacaftor shows promise for the treatment of adult patients with cystic fibrosis who have mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), according to two studies published online Oct. 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine. The studies were published to coincide with a presentation at the annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, held from Oct. 18 to 20 in Denver.

Abstract/Full Text – Davies
Abstract/Full Text – Keating
Editorial
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WHO: Congo Ebola Outbreak Not a Global Emergency

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 — The latest Ebola outbreak in Congo is not yet severe enough to be declared a global emergency, the World Health Organization decided after a meeting of experts yesterday.

AP News Article
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Clostridium difficile Spores Survive Laundering of Sheets

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 17, 2018 — Clostridium difficile spores are able to survive laundering through a commercial washer extractor, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

Abstract/Full Text

Procurement Requirements Drive Interoperability in Health Care IT

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 — Interoperability of health care information technology (IT) must be improved to facilitate creation of a fully integrated health care system that can improve health and health care at lower cost, according to a report published by the National Academy of Medicine.

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Limited Evidence for OTC Preps to Treat Nasal Symptoms of Colds

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 — Limited evidence is available for over-the-counter (OTC) treatments for nasal symptoms of the common cold, according to a report published online Oct. 10 in The BMJ.

Abstract/Full Text

Plasma-Based Genotyping Aids Targeted Tx of Metastatic NSCLC

THURSDAY, Oct. 18, 2018 — Integration of plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS) into the routine management of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) results in an increase in the detection of therapeutically targetable mutations, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in JAMA Oncology.

Abstract/Full Text
Editorial

Positive HPV Status Tied to Better Cervical Cancer Prognosis

TUESDAY, Oct. 16, 2018 — Women with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive cervical tumors have a substantially better prognosis than women with hrHPV-negative tumors, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in PLOS Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text

Without Medicaid Expansion, Poor Patients Forgo Medical Care

MONDAY, Oct. 15, 2018 — Doing without medical care is much more common among low-income residents of states that have not expanded Medicaid than among low-income people in other states, according to a Government Accountability Office report.

AP News Article

FDA Approves New DNA-Based Test to Verify Blood Compatibility

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the ID CORE XT DNA-based test to help doctors verify blood compatibility before a transfusion.

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Zoledronate Lowers Fracture Risk in Women With Osteopenia

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 — The risk for fragility fractures is significantly lower in women with osteopenia who receive zoledronate than in those who receive placebo, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text

High Circulating Prolactin Level Inversely Linked to T2DM Risk

FRIDAY, Oct. 12, 2018 — Among U.S. women, a normally high circulating prolactin concentration is associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in Diabetologia.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Diet Less Important Than Genes for High Serum Urate Levels

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 — Diet explains little of the variation in serum urate levels in the general population, while genetic factors make a greater contribution, according to a meta-analysis published online Oct. 10 in The BMJ.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Wall Thickness Measured by MRI More Consistently Linked to CVD

THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 — Common carotid artery (CCA) wall thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more consistently associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes than intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound, according to a study published online Oct. 9 in Radiology.

Abstract/Full Text

Aetna-CVS Merger Approved

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10, 2018 — A $69 billion merger between health insurer Aetna and pharmacy manager CVS Health has been approved, according to the U.S. Justice Department.

The New York Times Article

Mechanical Ventilation May Alter Diaphragm Muscle Fibers

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 — In critically ill patients, mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) results in reduced diaphragm fiber length that may make it more difficult to wean patients from mechanical ventilation, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Minority Residents Experience Burdens Linked to Race/Ethnicity

TUESDAY, Oct. 9 2018 — Minority residents describe burdens associated with race/ethnicity, including microaggressions and bias on a daily basis, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in JAMA Network Open.

Abstract/Full Text
Editorial

Integrated Classifier Identifies Benign Lung Nodules

TUESDAY, Oct. 9, 2018 — An integrated plasma proteomics classifier, which integrates the relative abundance of two plasma proteins with a clinical risk prediction model, can distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules in those at low-to-intermediate risk for cancer, according to a study published in the September issue of CHEST.

Abstract/Full Text
Editorial

Industry-Funded Trials Often Involve Employees in Studies

FRIDAY, Oct. 5, 2018 — Industry employees are often involved in the design, conduct, and reporting of industry-funded trials in high-impact journals, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in The BMJ.

Abstract/Full Text
Editorial

Tips Provided for Budgeting in Medical Residency

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 — Medical residents should start budgeting and save for the future, according to an article published in the American Medical Association AMA Wire.

More Information

Three-Quarters of Health Care Workers Got Flu Shot Last Year

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 — Just over three-quarters of health care personnel received a flu vaccine last season, according to research published in the Sept. 28 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Abstract/Full Text

Genomic Screening Can ID Undetected BRCA1/2 Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, Oct. 4, 2018 — Exome sequencing-based screening may identify pathogenic and likely pathogenic (P/LP) BRCA1/2 variants that might otherwise remain undetected, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in JAMA Network Open.

Abstract/Full Text

Uninsured Rate at 8.8 Percent in First Quarter of 2018

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 — In the first quarter of 2018, the uninsured rate was 8.8 percent, not significantly different from a year earlier, according to a report released Aug. 29 by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Abstract/Full Text

For Employer-Based Plans, Spending Across Services Steady

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 — Despite large health policy changes, the distribution of spending across service areas has remained fairly consistent over the past 10 years for those enrolled in employer-sponsored insurance, according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Negligible Drop in Neoplastic Lesion Dx After First Round of FIT

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 — After the first round of a fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based, multiple-round, long-term screening program, there is a negligible reduction in detection rates for neoplastic lesions in the proximal versus the distal colon, according to a study published online Oct. 2 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Second Opinion at NCI Center Valuable for Breast CA Patients

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 — Almost 43 percent of patients diagnosed with breast cancer presenting to a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center for a second opinion have a change in diagnosis, according to a study published in the October issue of the Annals of Surgical Oncology.

Abstract/Full Text

Interviews Can Help Ensure Physician Candidates Fit Culture

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 — In preparing to interview to hire a new physician, practices must understand their own cultures, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

Abstract/Full Text

Number of Health-Related Data Breaches Increasing

TUESDAY, Oct. 2, 2018 — The number of health data breaches has steadily increased since 2010, according to a research letter published in the Sept. 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

First Human Case of Rat Strain of Hepatitis E Seen in Hong Kong

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — The first human case of a strain of hepatitis E previously found only in rats was diagnosed in a Hong Kong man who received a liver transplant in May 2017.

The New York Times Article

WHO: ‘Very High Risk’ That Ebola Will Spread From Congo

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — There is a “very high” risk that the latest Ebola outbreak in Congo will spread beyond that nation’s borders, the World Health Organization warns.

AP News Article
More Information

Hospital Privacy Curtains Become Increasingly Contaminated

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — Curtains surrounding patient beds become progressively contaminated with bacteria, according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

Abstract/Full Text

Risk of Relapse Up for Teens, Young Adults With Leukemia

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — Adolescents and young adults (AYA; aged 15 to 39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased risk of on-therapy relapse and relapse after completing therapy compared with children with ALL, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

More Non-Elderly Americans Uninsured in 2017 Versus 2016

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — From 2016 to 2017, there was an increase in the number of uninsured non-elderly Americans, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

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Genetics May Identify Type 2 Diabetes Subtypes

MONDAY, Oct. 1, 2018 — Clusters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci and traits have been identified, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in PLOS Medicine.

Abstract/Full Text

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Posted: November 2018

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