Breaking News
January 23, 2019 - The Tiny Camera That Could Revolutionize Cardiovascular Surgery
January 23, 2019 - Peptide isolated from soil fungi has antitumor and antibacterial properties
January 23, 2019 - TGen identifies polio-like virus as potential cause of Acute Flaccid Myelitis outbreak
January 23, 2019 - Migrants and refugees do not bring disease and are at greater health risk themselves says WHO
January 23, 2019 - Examing the effects of menopause in workplace
January 23, 2019 - Enemy number 1 – Air pollution and climate change top of WHO agenda
January 23, 2019 - Two Positive Phase III studies of Tafenoquine for the Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Published in The New England Journal of Medicine
January 23, 2019 - World Trade Center responders at increased risk for head and neck cancers
January 23, 2019 - Low-sugar diet leads to significant improvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in boys
January 23, 2019 - Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system, finds study
January 23, 2019 - Short, text-based exercises can increase happiness for adults recovering from substance use disorders
January 23, 2019 - Body size may have greater influence on women’s lifespan than men
January 23, 2019 - Groundbreaking tool helps visualize neuronal activity with near-infrared light
January 23, 2019 - Holocaust survivors with PTSD and their offspring exhibit more unhealthy behavior patterns
January 23, 2019 - Scientists discover new genetic mutations causing inherited deaf-blindness
January 23, 2019 - UC team designs new naloxone-dispensing smart device
January 23, 2019 - Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Losartan Potassium Tablets, USP and Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets, USP
January 23, 2019 - Brain activity shows development of visual sensitivity in autism
January 23, 2019 - Two hour gap between dinner and sleep is overrated says Japanese research
January 23, 2019 - Fear and embarrassment are causing smear test numbers to plummet
January 23, 2019 - Protein-secreting device implanted in epileptic rats reduces seizures, improves cognition
January 23, 2019 - Reintroduction project recovers current wild population of green turtle in Cayman Islands
January 23, 2019 - Cancer survivors face greater financial burden related to medical bills
January 23, 2019 - PSA screening reduces prostate cancer deaths by 30%
January 23, 2019 - LSTM receives grant to help improve health of people living in informal settlements
January 23, 2019 - Hemochromatosis Mutation Linked to Other Morbidity
January 23, 2019 - Why early diagnosis of autism should lead to early intervention
January 23, 2019 - Aspirin May Lower Stroke Risk in Women with History of Preeclampsia
January 23, 2019 - Exposure to certain chemicals may be linked to decrease in blood pressure during pregnancy
January 23, 2019 - Bowel cancer on the rise among younger Australians
January 23, 2019 - Scientists have reversed memory loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s
January 23, 2019 - Defective molecular master switch could lead to age-related macular degeneration
January 23, 2019 - Researchers identify how concussions may contribute to seizures
January 23, 2019 - Short interval between last meal of the day and bedtime may not affect blood glucose levels
January 23, 2019 - Still Too Many Highway Deaths Tied to Speeding
January 23, 2019 - Prenatal valproate exposure linked to increased ADHD risk
January 23, 2019 - Compound identified that may help treat heart failure
January 23, 2019 - Undiagnosed Asthma in Urban Adolescents May Be Common
January 23, 2019 - Study describes metabolism of intestinal microbiota in babies for the first time
January 22, 2019 - Study links concussions to development of epilepsy
January 22, 2019 - Specialist-led hospital bereavement service may help restrain legal action after difficult deaths
January 22, 2019 - Genetic study reveals possible new routes to treating osteoarthritis
January 22, 2019 - Blood test may detect early signs of lung-transplant rejection
January 22, 2019 - Blood marker could aid in early prediction of Alzheimer’s progression
January 22, 2019 - Orthodontic treatment does not guarantee future dental health
January 22, 2019 - Rutgers researchers discover cause of bone loss in people with joint replacements
January 22, 2019 - Diversity among rural Africans extends to their gut microbiomes
January 22, 2019 - Newly developed biological system lets cells to create self-curving cornea
January 22, 2019 - VTv Therapeutics Announces Publication of Comprehensive Data in Science Translational Medicine Detailing the Discovery and Clinical Development of TTP399, including Results of Phase 2 AGATA Study
January 22, 2019 - about one in three adults with prediabetes has arthritis
January 22, 2019 - A look at how data is democratizing health care
January 22, 2019 - Alcohol-Linked Disease Overtakes Hep C As Top Reason For Liver Transplant
January 22, 2019 - Researchers identify new genes linked with age-related macular degeneration
January 22, 2019 - MPFI researchers identify synaptic logic for connections between two brain hemispheres
January 22, 2019 - New approach to reduce toxic protein production in ALS
January 22, 2019 - New study extends our knowledge of the link between miRNAs and cancer
January 22, 2019 - Asthma, eczema are not barriers to active lifestyle in teenagers
January 22, 2019 - Genetic changes may predict likelihood of relapse in breast cancer patients
January 22, 2019 - Antiepileptic drug use by people with Alzheimer’s disease linked to accumulation of hospital days
January 22, 2019 - IUPUI researcher receives $2.85 million grant to find ways to improve bone strength
January 22, 2019 - Precision medicine can help keep astronauts healthy during deep space missions
January 22, 2019 - Detecting signs of neurodegeneration earlier and more accurately
January 22, 2019 - Mouse studies challenge ‘inhibition’ theory of autism
January 22, 2019 - SSB launches BIOSTAT RM TX single-use bioreactor for producing consistent quality cellular products
January 22, 2019 - Experimental drug can positively modify key characteristic behavior in FXS patients
January 22, 2019 - Low-Income Women Lack Menstrual Hygiene Supplies
January 22, 2019 - Better mouse model built to enable precision-medicine research for Alzheimer’s
January 22, 2019 - Molecular profiling of precancerous lung lesions could lead to early detection and new treatments
January 22, 2019 - Genetic factors influence where fat is stored in our bodies
January 22, 2019 - The Psychology Behind Sticking to Your New Year’s Resolutions
January 22, 2019 - Scientists aim to find genetic causes of developmental abnormalities in the vagina and uterus
January 22, 2019 - New survey reveals scale of preventative healthcare challenge in the UK
January 22, 2019 - Looming Global Crisis Means People’s Diets Must Change: Experts
January 22, 2019 - Excessive social media use is comparable to drug addiction
January 22, 2019 - Researchers show how mechanical stress affects bone development
January 22, 2019 - Study takes a step closer to understanding the body’s response to opioid painkillers
January 22, 2019 - Unexpected connection found between feeding and memory centers of the brain
January 22, 2019 - A revolutionary approach transforms bone trauma treatment
January 22, 2019 - Early studies and recent clinical trials on nerve growth factor
January 22, 2019 - Dry Mouth and Older Adults: Information for Caregivers
Incarceration is likely to increase HIV and HCV transmission among people who inject drugs, new study finds

Incarceration is likely to increase HIV and HCV transmission among people who inject drugs, new study finds

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Injecting drug use, through the sharing of needles, syringes and other injecting equipment, is a primary route of transmission for both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), blood-borne infections that cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. New research led by the University of Bristol has found among people who inject drugs, that recent incarceration was associated with an 81 per cent and 62 per cent increase in HIV and HCV acquisition risk, respectively.

The study, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incarceration history, either recent incarceration or past incarceration, raises the risk of HIV or HCV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID).

Through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases and contacting authors of incidence studies not presenting on outcomes of interest, the research team identified 41 studies (21 of which were unpublished) with available data on these outcomes to be included in meta-analyses.

The researchers found strong evidence that recent incarceration is associated with an 81 per cent and 62 per cent increase in the risk of HIV and HCV acquisition, respectively. These findings were robust to sensitivity analyses, including the exclusion of studies at high risk of bias.

Jack Stone, Senior Research Associate in Health Infectious Disease Mathematical Modelling in the Bristol Medical School: Population Health Sciences, said: “This is the first global systematic review of quantitative studies on the effect of incarceration history on HIV and HCV transmission among people who inject drugs. Our findings provide strong evidence that recent incarceration increases HIV and HCV transmission risk.

“We found evidence of this effect in settings where HCV transmission is known to be very low during periods of incarceration, suggesting increases in transmission risk occur following release from prison. This work is essential for understanding how the incarceration of PWID, and consequently, international drug policy, can contribute to increasing the burden of HIV and HCV among PWID. Hopefully this work will help guide future evidence-based drug policies and interventions to reduce this risk.”

It is well known that PWID experience high rates of incarceration (an estimated 58 per cent have ever been incarcerated globally), with a history of incarceration frequently being associated with higher HIV and HCV infection. The period immediately following release from prison represents a high risk for relapse to illicit drug use and poses an increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes, including drug-related deaths but also increased injecting risk behaviours, homelessness and reduced access to interventions.

Incarceration is likely to be a significant driver of HIV and HCV transmission among PWID in many settings because of the high rates of incarceration that PWID experience, as supported by previous mathematical modelling studies performed by this research team.

The study has important implications for policy and public health, including:

  • international drug policy whose overwhelming focus on the criminalization of people who use drugs has led to high rates of incarceration among PWID;
  • the need for improved prison-based harm reduction which is absent in most countries and often inadequate in those in which it is provided; and
  • the need for improved linkage upon release to harm reduction as well as other services to address many of the multiple social vulnerabilities experienced by PWID that are amplified following incarceration (including for example homelessness).

The research team’s findings also add to the growing body of evidence for the harms associated with international drug policy and support calls for the decriminalisation of illicit drug use.

The team suggest further research is needed to better explain the factors associated with incarceration that increase HIV and HCV acquisition risk, to help the development of interventions to reduce these risks. It also unknown, whether the effects of incarceration differ by type of detention (jail or prison etc.) or length of incarceration.


Explore further:
Retention in HIV care drops after release from incarceration

More information:
Jack Stone et al. Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis, The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2018). DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9

Journal reference:
Lancet Infectious Diseases

Provided by:
University of Bristol

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles