Breaking News
January 19, 2019 - 4.6 percent of Massachusetts residents have opioid use disorder
January 19, 2019 - New study suggests vital exhaustion as risk factor for dementia
January 19, 2019 - New antibiotic discovery heralds breakthrough in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Ural Federal University scientists synthesize a group of multi-purpose fluorophores
January 19, 2019 - Researchers identify new therapeutic target in the fight against chronic liver diseases
January 19, 2019 - Preparation, characterization of Soyasapogenol B loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs
January 19, 2019 - FDA Approves Ontruzant (trastuzumab-dttb), a Biosimilar to Herceptin
January 19, 2019 - Tobacco use linked with higher use of opioids and sedatives
January 19, 2019 - Study delves deeper into developmental dyslexia
January 19, 2019 - Anti-vaccination movement one of the top health threats in 2019 says WHO
January 19, 2019 - Newly developed risk score more effective at identifying type 1 diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Highly effective protocol to prepare cannabis samples for THC/CBD analysis
January 19, 2019 - Prinston Pharmaceutical Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Irbesartan and Irbesartan HCTZ Tablets Due to Detection of a Trace Amount of Unexpected Impurity, N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the Products
January 19, 2019 - How does solid stress from brain tumors cause neuronal loss, neurologic dysfunction?
January 19, 2019 - $14.7 million partnership to supercharge vaccine development
January 19, 2019 - Ian Fotheringham receives Charles Tennant Memorial Lecture award
January 19, 2019 - Brain vital signs detect neurophysiological impairments in players with concussions
January 19, 2019 - Lack of job and poor housing conditions increased likelihood of people attending A&E
January 19, 2019 - Novel targeted drug delivery system improves conventional cancer treatments
January 19, 2019 - Rutgers study finds gene responsible for spread of prostate cancer
January 19, 2019 - Complications Higher Than Expected for Invasive Lung Tests
January 19, 2019 - 3-D printed implant promotes nerve cell growth to treat spinal cord injury
January 19, 2019 - Automated texts lead to improved outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery
January 19, 2019 - Poor cardiorespiratory fitness could increase risk of future heart attack, finds new study
January 19, 2019 - Drinking soft drinks while exercising in hot weather may increase risk of kidney disease
January 19, 2019 - Formlabs 3D prints anatomical models
January 19, 2019 - Heart-Healthy Living Also Wards Off Type 2 Diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media (for Parents)
January 19, 2019 - Metabolite produced by gut microbiota from pomegranates reduces inflammatory bowel disease
January 19, 2019 - Researchers examine how spray from showers and toilets expose us to disease causing bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Behavioral experiments confirm that additional neurons improve brain function
January 19, 2019 - New study compares performance of real-time infectious disease forecasting models
January 19, 2019 - Obesity can be risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma, confirms study
January 19, 2019 - New regulation designs on cigarette packs direct smokers’ attention to health warnings
January 19, 2019 - QIAGEN receives first companion diagnostic approval in Japan
January 19, 2019 - Study explores role of Dunning-Kruger effect in anti-vaccine attitudes
January 19, 2019 - Newly identified subset of immune cells may be key to fighting chronic inflammation
January 19, 2019 - New immune response regulators discovered
January 18, 2019 - Poor blood oxygenation during sleep predicts chance of heart-related death
January 18, 2019 - First international consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia
January 18, 2019 - Rapid resistance gene sequencing technology can hasten identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids in E. coli
January 18, 2019 - Scientists advise caution in immunotherapy research
January 18, 2019 - How children across the world develop language
January 18, 2019 - Columbia Medical Student Receives McDonogh Scholarship
January 18, 2019 - Secretive ‘Rebate Trap’ Keeps Generic Drugs For Diabetes And Other Ills Out Of Reach
January 18, 2019 - Plant based diet could be the best option for the planet says commission
January 18, 2019 - New conservation practice could reduce nitrogen from agricultural drainage, study shows
January 18, 2019 - UIC researchers receive $1.7 million NCI grant to study Southeast Asian fruit
January 18, 2019 - New study determines the fate of DNA derived from genetically modified food
January 18, 2019 - Scientists develop new gene therapy that prevents axon destruction in mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds critically low HPV vaccination rates among younger adolescents in the U.S.
January 18, 2019 - Brain cells involved in memory play key role in reducing future eating behavior
January 18, 2019 - Risk for Conversion of MS Varies With Different Therapies
January 18, 2019 - Investigational cream may help patients with inflammatory skin disease
January 18, 2019 - Medical school news office receives six writing awards | News Center
January 18, 2019 - County By County, Researchers Link Opioid Deaths To Drugmakers’ Marketing
January 18, 2019 - Research reveals risk for developing more than one mental health disorder
January 18, 2019 - Scientists discover a dramatic pattern of bone growth in female mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds link between lengthy periods of undisturbed maternal sleep and stillbirths
January 18, 2019 - New nuclear medicine method could improve detection of primary and metastatic melanoma
January 18, 2019 - Combination therapy shows high efficacy in treating people with leishmaniasis and HIV
January 18, 2019 - Health Tip: Don’t Ignore Changes in Skin Color
January 18, 2019 - Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children
January 18, 2019 - Eliminating the latent reservoir of HIV
January 18, 2019 - Pain From The Government Shutdown Spreads. This Time It’s Food Stamps
January 18, 2019 - Newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps control fat metabolism
January 18, 2019 - New rapid blood tests could speed up TB diagnosis, save the NHS money
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop intelligent system for ‘tuning’ powered prosthetic knees
January 18, 2019 - Monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab prolongs survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma
January 18, 2019 - Microrobots could one day deliver drugs inside the body
January 18, 2019 - Maintaining an active lifestyle in older age could prevent dementia
January 18, 2019 - New research detects mosquito known to transmit malaria for the first time in Ethiopia
January 18, 2019 - Researchers identify new genes linked to development of age-related macular degeneration
January 18, 2019 - Computerized method helps better protect pharma patents
January 18, 2019 - New guidelines to make swallowing safer for people in Australian nursing homes
January 18, 2019 - Lumex Instruments’ RA-915AM monitor installed at Hg treatment plant in Almadén, Spain
January 18, 2019 - ACCC survey finds multiple threats to growth of cancer programs
January 18, 2019 - Meeting the challenge of engaging men in HIV prevention and treatment
January 18, 2019 - Furloughed Feds’ Health Coverage Intact, But Shutdown Still Complicates Things
Study finds three distinct stages in infant microbiome development

Study finds three distinct stages in infant microbiome development

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

In the largest clinical microbiome study in infants reported to date, a team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine explored the sequence of microbial colonization in the infant gut through age 4 and found distinct stages of development in the microbiome that were associated with early life exposures. Published in the journal Nature, their report and an accompanying report led by the Broad Institute are the result of extensive analysis of data collected from a cohort of participants involved in the TEDDY diabetes study.

The TEDDY study (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study has been collecting data for 10 years with the goal of understanding what triggers type 1 diabetes in children at increased genetic risk for the disease. Researchers at six clinical centers in the U.S., Sweden, Finland, and Germany, as well as the Data Coordinating Center at the University of South Florida, have gathered monthly stool samples and data from more than 8,600 children who are genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes. From this cohort, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine analyzed 12,005 stool samples that were collected from 903 children between three and 46 months of age to further understand what the microbiome looks like early in life.

“We know that the first few years of life are important for microbiome establishment. You are born with very few microbes, and microbial communities assemble on and in your body through those first years of your life,” said Dr. Joseph Petrosino, director of the Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research and professor and interim chair of molecular virology and microbiology at Baylor. “In this study, we took a closer look in this amazing cohort at the establishment of the microbiome over the first few years of life and the early life exposures associated with that sequence of events.”

Using state of the art sequencing of both RNA and DNA to uncover the complete genetic set up of all microbes, Petrosino and his team determined that the developing gut microbiome undergoes three distinct phases of microbiome progression:

  1. Developmental phase (3 to 14 months of age)
  2. Transitional phase (15 to 30 months of age) and
  3. Stable phase (31 to 46 months of age)

“This information is useful for any future microbiome studies looking at an infant cohort for scientific discovery and potential intervention purposes. The idea that we can stratify the development phases in this manner may give researchers additional resolution to reveal differences that could potentially be disease-associated,” Petrosino said.

More insights into microbiome development

The study found an association between at least partial breastfeeding and having a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum, two types of bacterial species with probiotic properties known to be prevalent early in life. In addition, the cessation of breastfeeding accelerated the maturation of the infant’s microbiome, meaning it proceeded quickly through the other stages to the stable phase, which is hallmarked by higher amounts of the bacteria Firmicutes spp.

“Further research will help better understand the implications of having an accelerated rate of microbiome maturation,” Petrosino said.

In those infants who were breastfed, the strains of Bifidobacterium that had the genetic capability of processing human milk were no longer detected once breastfeeding stopped.

“The presumption is that selective pressure for these organisms to be present during breastfeeding is removed once breastfeeding stops, and other strains of Bifidobacterium that do not process the metabolites in breast milk can then grow,” Petrosino said. “This provides insight into how the early diet is impacting microbiome development.”

The researchers also found an association between vaginal delivery and having a greater abundance of bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides genus. However, having more Bacteroides at birth was not exclusive to those infants who were delivered by this mode. Those who did have more Bacteroides at birth tended to have a greater diversity of microbes early in the first 40 months of life.

“Again, the implications are not yet clear. Having microbial diversity is typically thought of as beneficial, but we still don’t fully understand which microbial signals early in life are important for development,” Petrosino said.

Petrosino noted that these data already are being used, along with the extensive TEDDY metadata repository, to better understand how environmental exposures contribute to progression to type 1 diabetes. Additional provocative microbiome analyses, including the viral and fungal microbiome constituents, are underway and will also include human genomic, metabolomic and proteomic data, as well as dietary and infectious episode information.

“These initial analyses have reinforced previous infant studies and also have revealed additional important microbiome associations during this critical time in life. Future discoveries from this cohort will pave the way for focused mechanistic work to elucidate how the microbiome influences health and disease, particularly type 1 diabetes,” said Dr. Christopher Stewart, co-first author of the study, formerly a postdoctoral researcher at the Petrosino lab at Baylor and now a research fellow at Newcastle University.

“It is cohorts such as this, where we can integrate clinical data with patient-specific exposure, genomic and microbiome analyses, that will lead to precision medicine-based diagnostics and therapeutics for type 1 diabetes and many other diseases,” Petrosino concluded.


Explore further:
Researchers connect lower antibiotic resistance with higher levels of bifidobacteria in infant gut

More information:
Christopher J. Stewart et al, Temporal development of the gut microbiome in early childhood from the TEDDY study, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0617-x

Journal reference:
Nature

Provided by:
Baylor College of Medicine

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles