Breaking News
December 13, 2018 - Single tau molecule holds clues to help diagnose neurodegeneration in its earliest stages
December 13, 2018 - AHA Scientific Statement: Low Risk of Side Effects for Statins
December 13, 2018 - What Is Acute Flaccid Myelitis?
December 13, 2018 - How bereaved people control their thoughts without knowing it
December 13, 2018 - Health care democratization underway, according to 2nd annual Stanford Medicine Health Trends Report | News Center
December 13, 2018 - Going Beyond a Single Color
December 13, 2018 - London-based startup launches ‘thedrug.store’ aiming to clean up CBD industry
December 13, 2018 - Loss of tight junction barrier protein results in gastric cancer development
December 13, 2018 - Novel way to efficiently deliver anti-parasitic medicines
December 13, 2018 - RKI publishes new data on disease prevention and utilization of medical services
December 13, 2018 - High-tech, flexible patches sewn into clothes could help to stay warm
December 13, 2018 - Restoring Hair Growth on Scarred Skin? Mouse Study Could Show the Way
December 13, 2018 - Probiotic use may reduce antibiotic prescriptions, researchers say
December 13, 2018 - Drug repositioning strategy identifies potential new treatments for epilepsy
December 13, 2018 - Chronic rhinitis associated with hospital readmissions for asthma and COPD patients
December 13, 2018 - Food poisoning discovery could save lives
December 13, 2018 - Cloned antibodies show potential to treat, diagnose life-threatening fungal infections
December 13, 2018 - Exercise may reduce colorectal cancer risk after weight loss
December 13, 2018 - Russian scientists create hardware-information system for brain disorders treatment
December 13, 2018 - Moderate alcohol consumption linked with lower risk of hospitalization
December 13, 2018 - Nurturing Healthy Neighborhoods | NIH News in Health
December 13, 2018 - Rise in meth and opioid use during pregnancy
December 13, 2018 - Researchers gain new insights into pediatric tumors
December 13, 2018 - FSU study finds racial disparity among adolescents receiving flu vaccine
December 13, 2018 - Drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off energy supply
December 13, 2018 - Baculovirus virion completely eliminates liver-stage parasites in mouse model
December 13, 2018 - Researchers create noninvasive technology that detects when nerve cells fire
December 13, 2018 - Allen Institute for Immunology to partner with CU Anschutz to understand dynamics of human immune system
December 13, 2018 - Inability to do daily living tasks delays discharge of mental health patients
December 13, 2018 - Treating patients with hypertension induced albuminuria
December 13, 2018 - New substance could improve efficacy of established breast cancer treatments
December 13, 2018 - Scientists develop new stem cell line to study conversion of stem cells into muscle
December 13, 2018 - Re-programming the body’s energy pathway boosts kidney self-repair
December 13, 2018 - Research findings could help improve treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders
December 13, 2018 - The Microbiome Movement announce Microbiotica as official industry partner
December 13, 2018 - New study reveals potential benefits of cEEG monitoring for infant ICU patients
December 13, 2018 - Whole-body imaging PET/MRI offers information to guide treatment options for prostate cancer
December 13, 2018 - International investigators fight against the negative campaign on benzodiazepines
December 13, 2018 - Targeting biochemical pathway may lead to new therapies for alleviating symptoms of anxiety disorders
December 13, 2018 - FDA Approves Tolsura (SUBA®-itraconazole capsules) for the Treatment of Certain Fungal Infections
December 13, 2018 - Are scientists studying the wrong kind of mice?
December 13, 2018 - Computer memory: A scientific team builds a virtual model of a key brain region
December 13, 2018 - Visual inspection alone is insufficient to diagnose skin cancer
December 13, 2018 - Paternal grandfather’s access to food associated with grandson’s mortality risk
December 13, 2018 - Our brain senses angry voices in a flash, study shows
December 13, 2018 - PM2.5 Exposure Linked to Asthma Rescue Medication Use
December 13, 2018 - Can’t exercise? A hot bath may help improve inflammation, metabolism, study suggests
December 13, 2018 - Can artificial intelligence help doctors with the human side of medicine?
December 13, 2018 - Virginia Tech and UC San Diego researchers team up to develop nonopioid drug for chronic pain
December 13, 2018 - NIH offers support for HIV care and prevention research in the southern United States
December 12, 2018 - Activating brain region could revive the urge to socialize among opioid addicts
December 12, 2018 - Relationship impairment appears to interfere with seeking mental health treatment in men
December 12, 2018 - Sleep, Don’t Cram, Before Finals for Better Grades
December 12, 2018 - Effective treatments for urticarial vasculitis
December 12, 2018 - Gun violence is a public health issue: One physician’s story
December 12, 2018 - The Science of Healthy Aging
December 12, 2018 - Yes to yoghurt and cheese: New improved Mediterranean diet
December 12, 2018 - Researchers uncover a number of previously unknown insecticide resistance mechanisms
December 12, 2018 - Regulating the immune system’s ‘regulator’
December 12, 2018 - In breaking bad news, the comfort of silence
December 12, 2018 - Study finds upward link between alcohol consumption and physical activity in college students
December 12, 2018 - FDA issues warning letter to Zhejiang Huahai Pharmaceutical involved in valsartan recall
December 12, 2018 - Weight history at ages 20 and 40 could help predict patients’ future risk of heart failure
December 12, 2018 - Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies tied to first-time MI
December 12, 2018 - DNA analysis finds that stethoscopes are teaming with bacteria
December 12, 2018 - New study could help inform research on preventing falls
December 12, 2018 - Women and men with heart attack symptoms receive different care from EMS
December 12, 2018 - Disrupted biological clock can contribute to onset of diseases, USC study shows
December 12, 2018 - New publications generate controversy over the value of reducing salt consumption in populations
December 12, 2018 - New data from TAILORx trial confirms lack of chemo benefit regardless of race or ethnicity
December 12, 2018 - Specific class of biomarkers can accurately indicate the severity of cancer
December 12, 2018 - Meds Taken Do Not Vary With ADL Impairment in Heart Failure
December 12, 2018 - Long-term study shows that HIV-2 is deadlier than previously thought
December 12, 2018 - People living near oil and gas wells show early signs of cardiovascular disease
December 12, 2018 - IONTAS founder and pioneer in phage display technology attends Nobel Prize Award Ceremony
December 12, 2018 - People who eat red meat have high levels of chemical associated with heart disease, study finds
December 12, 2018 - New method uses water molecules to unlock neurons’ secrets
December 12, 2018 - Genetics study offers hope for new acne treatment
December 12, 2018 - New computer model predicts prostate cancer progression
December 12, 2018 - Nobel Laureates lecture about immune checkpoint therapy for cancer treatment
Discovery about DNA twists could be crucial in development of new antibiotics

Discovery about DNA twists could be crucial in development of new antibiotics

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

DNA replication is vital to all lifeforms, but in some organisms, it can be prevented by twists in the DNA sequence, called ‘supercoils’. If too many supercoils are allowed to build up, cells vital to sustaining life will die.

A molecular machine, called DNA gyrase, which is found in bacterial cells but not human cells, relaxes the twists to allow DNA replication to continue as normal, but until now there was limited understanding of how it does this in real time in actual living cells.

The process is of particular interest to drug developers because if DNA gyrase can be successfully interrupted as it works to stop twists occurring in bacterial DNA cells, the bacteria will die and the threat of infection to the host prevented.

The team from the University of York, in collaboration with the John Innes Centre, Oxford, and the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland, used a special laser microscope to shine a light on a fluorescent protein, which makes DNA gyrase glow yellow. This allowed scientists to see inside a bacterial cell and, for the first time, observe how the molecular machinery prevents twists in DNA.

Professor Mark Leake, from the University of York’s Departments of Biology and Physics, said: “By using modified fluorescent proteins the DNA gyrase can be made to glow yellow whereas the cellular machinery, which is used to actually replicate DNA, can be labeled with a different red-glowing protein.

“These separate colors can then be split into different detector channels to enable the precise location of DNA gyrase to be observed relative to the exact point at which DNA replication is actually occurring inside a single living bacterial cell.”

The researchers have discovered that the DNA gyrase focuses its twist-relaxation activities just in front of the point at which DNA is being replicated in a cell.

Professor Leake said: “The molecular machines that perform DNA replication shuttle along the DNA, but this work can result in tiny nanoscale twists of DNA that accumulate in front of the replication machinery, just like tangled up cables at the back of your TV set.

“We have now shown that several tens of DNA gyrase molecules actively bind to a zone directly in front of the replication machinery and relax the DNA nano-twists faster than the replication machinery itself moves along the DNA.

“They essentially prevent a ‘twist barrier’ from building up which would stop replication machinery from shuttling along the DNA, halt replication, and kill the cell.”

DNA gyrase is a target for a number of different antibiotics, but with several ‘super-bugs’ emerging that are resistant to antibiotics, there is more urgent need to understand how bacterial cells operate in real time.

Professor Leake said: “Now that we know how DNA gyrase really performs its role inside living bacteria, we can assist in the design of new types of drugs that can stop DNA gyrase from working, which will allow drugs to be more targeted and ultimately kill dangerous bacterial infections in humans.

“Human cells have similar mechanisms to resolve DNA twists but using different molecular machines, and our work on DNA gyrase in bacteria gives us valuable insights into the generalized mechanisms governing the operation of this class of remarkable biomolecules for all organisms.”

Source:

https://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2018/research/dna-twist-discovery-could-further-antibiotic-drugs/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles