Breaking News
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
February 22, 2019 - Nature versus nurture and addiction
February 22, 2019 - New website connects researchers with data experts, resources | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Today’s Concerns About Drug Prices Echo The Past
February 22, 2019 - CT and Doppler equipment have low accuracy in detecting cerebral vasospasm and ischemia
February 22, 2019 - Study finds out similarity in function between healthy retina cell and tumor cell
February 22, 2019 - CWRU awarded NIH grant to identify effective treatments for intimate partner violence
February 22, 2019 - Oncotype DX Not Cost-Effective for Low-Risk Breast Cancer
February 22, 2019 - Scientists discover new type of immune cells that are essential for forming heart valves
February 22, 2019 - Talk About Déjà Vu: Senators Set To Re-Enact Drug Price Hearing Of 60 Years Ago
February 22, 2019 - Genetic defect linked to pediatric liver disease identified
February 22, 2019 - New cellular atlas could provide a deeper insight into blinding diseases
February 22, 2019 - Growing number of cancer survivors, fewer providers point to challenge in meeting care needs
February 22, 2019 - Innovative compound offers a new therapeutic approach to treat multiple sclerosis
February 22, 2019 - $1.5 million grant to develop opioid treatment program for jail detainees
February 22, 2019 - FDA’s new proposed rule would update regulatory requirements for sunscreen products in the U.S
February 22, 2019 - Most Hip, Knee Replacements Last Decades, Study Finds
February 22, 2019 - Wellness problems prevalent among ob-gyn residents
February 22, 2019 - In the Spotlight: “The world is your oyster in geriatrics”
February 22, 2019 - Successful testing of multi-organ “human-on-a-chip” could replace animals as test subjects
February 22, 2019 - Analysis of cervical precancer shows decline in two strains of HPV
February 22, 2019 - Sugary stent eases suturing of blood vessels
February 22, 2019 - From surgery to psychiatry: A medical student reevaluates his motivations
February 22, 2019 - Is New App From Feds Your Answer To Navigating Medicare Coverage? Yes And No
February 22, 2019 - New pacemakers powered by heartbeats could reduce need for surgery
February 22, 2019 - The United States records highest drug overdose death rates
February 22, 2019 - Phase 1 data reinforce safety profile of new drug for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy
February 22, 2019 - Vitamin D supplementation less effective in the presence of obesity, shows study
February 22, 2019 - CPRIT awards nearly $20 million to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
February 22, 2019 - Sarepta Announces FDA Acceptance of Golodirsen (SRP-4053) New Drug Application for Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Amenable to Skipping Exon 53
February 22, 2019 - An institutional effort to reduce the amount of opioids prescribed following lumbar surgery
February 22, 2019 - Family-history-based models perform better than non-family-history based models
February 22, 2019 - Failure to take statins leads to higher mortality rates | News Center
February 22, 2019 - New study explains why some patients report phantom sensations after limb amputation
February 22, 2019 - First motor-controlled heart valves implanted by Mainz University Medical Center
February 22, 2019 - Novel preclinical model mimics persistent interneuron loss seen in preterm infants
February 22, 2019 - Global health burden of glaucoma has increased, study reveals
February 22, 2019 - A holistic approach key to minimize treatment complexity in patients with interstitial lung disease
February 22, 2019 - 1 in 10 middle-aged Chinese adults are at high risk for heart disease, finds study
February 22, 2019 - More than half a million breast cancer patient’s lives saved by improvements in treatment
February 22, 2019 - Study finds no evidence that tougher policies prevent teenage cannabis use
February 22, 2019 - New blood test detects genetic disorders in fetuses
February 22, 2019 - Lower Self-Perception Observed in Children With Amblyopia
February 22, 2019 - Up to 15 percent of children have sleep apnea, yet 90 percent go undiagnosed
February 22, 2019 - Rare pulmonary defect prompts parents’ nationwide search for answers | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Lesbian and bisexual women at greater risk of being overweight, study finds
February 22, 2019 - UQ research may explain why vitamin D is essential for brain health
February 22, 2019 - Heart Attacks Rising Among Younger Women
February 22, 2019 - How your smartphone is affecting your relationship
February 22, 2019 - Orthopaedic surgeon receives prestigious award, $10 million grant | News Center
February 22, 2019 - New sepsis test could save thousands of lives
February 22, 2019 - Cervical cancer could be eradicated by 2100
February 21, 2019 - Sustained smoking cessation can lower risk of seropositive RA
February 21, 2019 - Thousands with chronic UTIs are not receiving the treatment they need
February 21, 2019 - Are teens getting high on social media? The surprising study seeking the pot-Instagram link
February 21, 2019 - Stanford expands biobank services | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Scientists identify link between drinking contexts and early onset intoxication among adolescents
February 21, 2019 - Strong social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women
February 21, 2019 - Rapid expansion of interventions could prevent up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer within 50 years
February 21, 2019 - Motif Bio Receives Complete Response Letter From The FDA
February 21, 2019 - Researchers map previously unknown disease in children
February 21, 2019 - A skeptical look at popular diets: Going gluten-free
February 21, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ How Safe Are Your Supplements?
February 21, 2019 - Factors associated with increased risk of developing surgical site infections
February 21, 2019 - Anticipatory signals in eye movements can help measure attentive capacity, learning with greater precision
February 21, 2019 - Study explores daily exposure to indoor air pollutants
February 21, 2019 - Evening exercise does not negatively affect sleep, may also reduce hunger
February 21, 2019 - Artificial intelligence technique can be used to identify alcohol misuse in trauma setting
February 21, 2019 - Overweight, obesity in adolescence associated with increased risk of renal cancer later in life
February 21, 2019 - BGU develops new AI platform for monitoring and predicting ALS progression
February 21, 2019 - Researchers discover a new promising target to improve HIV vaccines
February 21, 2019 - Brief Anesthesia in Infancy Does Not Mar Neurodevelopment
February 21, 2019 - Gaming system helps with autism diagnosis
February 21, 2019 - Heart Disease: Six Things Women Should Know
February 21, 2019 - More States Say Doctors Must Offer Overdose Reversal Drug Along With Opioids
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explore case studies focused on industries that kill more people than employed
February 21, 2019 - Only half of GP practice buildings are fit for purpose
February 21, 2019 - Intense exercise, fasting and hormones can enhance waste-protein removal, study shows
February 21, 2019 - Scientists can monitor brain activity to predict epileptic seizures few minutes in advance
February 21, 2019 - Study quantifies hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of Ugt isoforms in rats
New report reveals effects of climate change, air pollution on human health

New report reveals effects of climate change, air pollution on human health

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

IIASA researchers have contributed to a major new report in The Lancet medical journal looking at the effects of climate change on human health, and the implications for society.

The 2018 Report of the research coalition The Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change shows that rising temperatures as a result of climate change are already exposing us to an unacceptably high health risk and warns, for the first time, that older people in Europe and the East Mediterranean are particularly vulnerable to extremes of heat, markedly higher than in Africa and SE Asia. The risk in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean stems from aging populations living in cities, with 42% and 43% of over-65s respectively vulnerable to heat. In Africa, 38% are thought to be vulnerable, while in Asia it is 34%.

The report also states that ambient air pollution resulted in several million premature deaths from ambient fine particulate matter globally in 2015, a conclusion from IIASA researchers confirming earlier assessments. Since air pollution and greenhouse gases often share common sources, mitigating climate change constitutes a major opportunity for direct human health benefits.

Leading doctors, academics and policy professionals from 27 organizations have contributed analysis and jointly authored the report. Alongside IIASA, the partners behind the research include the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), University College London and Tsinghua University, among others.

IIASA researcher Gregor Kiesewetter led a team from the Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases research program that estimated the dangers of air pollution to human health. A new and important finding this year was the global attribution of deaths to source. Kiesewetter and the team found that coal alone accounts for 16% of pollution-related premature deaths, around 460,000, which they state makes phasing out coal-use a “crucial no-regret intervention for public health”.

Kiesewetter and the team used the GAINS Model, developed at IIASA, which calculates the emissions of precursors of particulate matter based on a detailed breakdown of economic sectors and fuels used.

Large contributions to ambient air pollution come from the residential sector, mostly from solid fuels like biomass and coal. Industry, electricity generation, transport, and agriculture are also important contributors. While coal should be a key target for early phase-out in households and electricity generation as it is highly polluting, it is not all that should be done.

“The attribution shows that unfortunately an approach targeting a single sector or fuel won’t solve the problem – air pollution is a multi-faceted issue that needs integrated strategies cutting across many sectors, which will differ from country to country. This is what we typically do with the regional and local GAINS model: giving advice to policymakers on the most efficient approaches to tackle air pollution in their specific settings,” says Kiesewetter.

The report contains a number of other headline findings: –

  • 157m more vulnerable people were subjected to a heatwave in 2017 than in 2000, and 18m more than in 2016.
  • 153bn hours of work were lost in 2017 due to extreme heat as a result of climate change. China alone lost 21bn hours, the equivalent of a year’s work for 1.4% of their working population. India lost 75bn hours, equivalent to 7% of their total working population.
  • Heat greatly exacerbates urban air pollution, with 97% of cities in low- and middle- income countries not meeting WHO air quality guidelines.
  • Heat stress, an early and severe effect of climate change, is commonplace and we, and the health systems we rely on, are ill equipped to cope.
  • Rising temperatures and unseasonable warmth is responsible for cholera and dengue fever spreading, with vectorial capacity for their transmission increasing across many endemic areas.
  • The mean global temperature change to which humans are exposed is more than double the global average change, with temperatures rising 0.8°C versus 0.3°C.

Hugh Montgomery, co-chair of The Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change and director of the Institute for Human Health and Performance, University College London says: “Heat stress is hitting hard – particularly amongst the urban elderly, and those with underlying health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In high temperatures, outdoor work, especially in agriculture, is hazardous. Areas from Northern England and California, to Australia are seeing savage fires with direct deaths, displacement and loss of housing as well as respiratory impacts from smoke inhalation.”

The report, which looks at 41 separate indicators across a range of themes, says urgent steps are needed to protect people now from the impacts of climate change. In particular, stronger labor regulations are needed to protect workers from extremes of heat and hospitals and the health systems we rely on need to be better equipped for extreme heat so they are able to cope. But the report also stresses that there are limits to adapting to the temperature increases, and if left unabated, climate change and heat will overwhelm even the strongest of systems, so the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is critical.

2018 has been an even hotter year in many parts of the world and the World Weather Attribution Study for northern Europe showed this summer’s heat wave was twice as likely to have happened as a result of man-made climate change. Of the 478 global cities surveyed in the report, 51% expect climate change to seriously compromise their public health infrastructure.

“The world has yet to effectively cut its emissions. The speed of climate change threatens our, and our children’s lives. Following current trends we exhaust our carbon budget required to keep warming below two degrees, by 2032. The health impacts of climate change above this level above this level threaten to overwhelm our emergency and health services,” says Anthony Costello, co-chair of The Lancet Countdown.

Other findings of the report include: a new indicator mapping extremes of precipitation that identifies South America and southeast Asia among the regions most exposed to flood and drought and, on food security, the report points to 30 countries experiencing downward trends in crop yields, reversing a decade-long trend that had previously seen global improvement. Yield potential is estimated to be declining in every region as extremes of weather become more frequent and more extreme.

Source:

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/181129-lancet-countdown.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles