Breaking News
February 16, 2019 - Collaborative material research could advance self-assembling nanomaterials
February 16, 2019 - Researchers take major step in creating technology that mimics the human brain
February 16, 2019 - Erasing memories associated with cocaine use reduces drug seeking behavior
February 16, 2019 - Artificial intelligence can accurately predict prognosis of ovarian cancer patients
February 16, 2019 - Racial disparities in cancer deaths on the decline for America
February 16, 2019 - FDA authorizes new interoperable insulin pump for children, adults with diabetes
February 16, 2019 - Coexisting Medical Conditions, Smoking Explain PTSD-CVD Link
February 16, 2019 - Skin Cancer Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
February 16, 2019 - ‘Happiness’ exercises can boost mood in those recovering from substance use disorder
February 16, 2019 - Cell manipulation could soon halt or reverse aging
February 16, 2019 - Pumped Breast Milk Falls Short of Breastfed Version
February 16, 2019 - Men’s porn habits could fuel partners’ eating disorders, study suggests
February 16, 2019 - Rapid progression of age-related diseases may result from formation of vicious cycles
February 16, 2019 - Immune checkpoint molecule protects against future development of cancer
February 16, 2019 - New method produces hydrogels that have properties similar to cells’ environment
February 16, 2019 - $4.1 million funding for heart research on Valentine’s Day
February 16, 2019 - General anesthesia in early infancy unlikely to have lasting effects on developing brains
February 16, 2019 - New breakthroughs for muscular dystrophy research
February 16, 2019 - First Opinion: Embryo editing for higher IQ is a fantasy. Embryo profiling for it is almost here
February 16, 2019 - Vapers develop cancer-related gene deregulation as cigarette smokers
February 16, 2019 - Bringing Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) to the Community
February 16, 2019 - Decolonization protocol after hospital discharge can prevent dangerous infections
February 16, 2019 - New technique using patients’ own modified cells could help treat Crohn’s disease
February 16, 2019 - Therapeutic endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of IBD
February 16, 2019 - Blood clot discovery could lead to development of better treatments for blood diseases
February 16, 2019 - Intervention can increase exclusive breastfeeding rates
February 16, 2019 - New project explores how gaming technologies can help cancer patients communicate better
February 16, 2019 - Catalyst Biosciences Presents Updated Data from Its Phase 2/3 Trial of Subcutaneous Marzeptacog Alfa (Activated) in Individuals with Hemophilia A or B with Inhibitors at the 12th Annual EAHAD Congress
February 16, 2019 - Rerouting nerves during amputation reduces phantom limb pain before it starts
February 16, 2019 - A Hormone Produced When We Exercise Might Help Fight Alzheimer’s
February 16, 2019 - Millions of British people breathe toxic air travelling to GPs
February 16, 2019 - Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft
February 16, 2019 - Researchers use optogenetic tool to control, visualize receptor signals in neural cells
February 16, 2019 - New reversible antiplatelet therapy could reduce risk of blood clots, prevent cancer metastasis
February 16, 2019 - Testosterone is not the only hormone needed for penis development
February 16, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Spravato (esketamine) Nasal Spray for Adults with Treatment-Resistant Depression
February 15, 2019 - Heart surgery technology developed at Baptist Health debuts after years of secrecy
February 15, 2019 - Prescription Opioids Double Risk of Triggering Fatal Car Crash
February 15, 2019 - New study helps doctors better understand high blood pressure in pregnant women
February 15, 2019 - Beta wave control in Parkinson’s diseased brain could be a potential therapy
February 15, 2019 - Media representations of love may justify gender-based violence in young people
February 15, 2019 - Yoga May Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms, Severity
February 15, 2019 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
February 15, 2019 - Master your mind: A challenge from WELL for Life
February 15, 2019 - Why Some Brain Tumors Respond to Immunotherapy
February 15, 2019 - Must-Reads Of The Week From Brianna Labuskes
February 15, 2019 - Researchers uncover novel mechanism and potential new therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s
February 15, 2019 - Genetic variations in a fourth gene associated with higher ALL risk in Hispanic children
February 15, 2019 - Disruptive behavioral problems in kindergarten linked with lower employment earnings in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - New bioengineered device enhances the production of T-cells
February 15, 2019 - HDL proteome behaves like a tiny Velcro ball that is rolling on surfaces
February 15, 2019 - Puerto Rican children more likely to have poor or decreasing use of asthma inhalers
February 15, 2019 - Quality of patient care does not improve after physician-hospital integration
February 15, 2019 - Synopsys release new software for implant design and patient-specific planning
February 15, 2019 - 6 out of 10 hip replacements last 25 years or longer
February 15, 2019 - Health Tip: What You Should Know About Antibiotics
February 15, 2019 - New research challenges medical consensus that adenoids and tonsils significantly shrink during teenage years
February 15, 2019 - Discovery of weakness in a rare cancer could be exploited with drugs
February 15, 2019 - UVA scientists find potential explanation for mysterious cell death in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s
February 15, 2019 - New rules requiring female athletes to lower testosterone levels are based on flawed data
February 15, 2019 - Researchers comprehensively sequence the human immune system
February 15, 2019 - Researchers study animal venoms to identify new medicines for treating diseases
February 15, 2019 - Movement of wrist bones revealed by MRI and computer modeling
February 15, 2019 - Philips introduces new premium digital X-ray room to help shorten patient wait times
February 15, 2019 - Women fare worse than men following aortic heart surgery, study finds
February 15, 2019 - High-protein and low-calorie diet helps older adults lose weight safely, shows study
February 15, 2019 - Drug microdosing effects may not measure up to big expectations
February 15, 2019 - Discharged, Dismissed: ERs Often Miss Chance To Set Overdose Survivors On ‘Better Path’
February 15, 2019 - A digitized lab environment to be showcased at smartLAB 2019
February 15, 2019 - Scientists uncover main mechanisms of fluconazole drug resistance
February 15, 2019 - New study seeks to understand how colibactin causes cancer
February 15, 2019 - Photoacoustic imaging accurately measures the temperature of deep tissues
February 15, 2019 - Large study finds no association between phthalate exposure and breast cancer risk
February 15, 2019 - New research explains presence of ‘natural’ magnetism in human cells
February 15, 2019 - Bio-Rad launches new digital PCR system and kit for monitoring treatment response in CML patients
February 15, 2019 - Excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA patients linked to greater risk for cardiovascular diseases
February 15, 2019 - Scientists shed light on damaging cell effects linked to aging
February 15, 2019 - Celiac disease may be caused by stomach bug in childhood
February 15, 2019 - NHS performance figures highlight the true scale of Emergency Department crisis
February 15, 2019 - High intensity exercise may improve health by increasing gut microbiota diversity
Researchers uncover specific microbial signatures of intestinal disease

Researchers uncover specific microbial signatures of intestinal disease

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers from the Department of Biomedical Research of the University of Bern and the University Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine of the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland, have discovered that changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease affect the severity of the disease and the success of therapy. The advance provides an important basis to improve treatment of these diseases.

Enormous numbers of bacteria live in our intestines: they normally cause no disease and they are essential if we are to remain healthy. If the delicate balance of these beneficial bacteria is disturbed through an unhealthy diet or side-effects of medications, the health-promoting functions of the bacteria are disrupted. Without the right interactions between our bodies and our intestinal bacteria different sorts of disease are triggered, especially inflammatory bowel disease.

There are different forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) – Crohn’s disease (which affects different segments of the entire intestinal tract) and ulcerative colitis (which affects the large intestine). These conditions affect about 30 people per 100,000 of the European and North American populations. Over the last 10 years the incidence of IBD in Switzerland has sharply increased: in 2004 there were about 12,000 patients compared with 20,000 in 2014. Since IBD usually starts before the age of 35, with major ongoing limitations for the quality of life and ability to work, the conditions also have severe social and economic consequences.

New results have now been reported on the relationships of intestinal bacteria in IBD patients by the research team led by Andrew Macpherson,Bahtiyar Yilmaz und Pascal Juillerat in the Department of Biomedical Research in the University of Bern and the University Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine of the Inselspital. They have discovered that changes of particular species of intestinal bacteria lead to severe relapsing disease resistant to therapy and even make the return of the disease more likely in patients whose active segments of Crohn’s disease have been surgically removed. The work is being published in the journal ‘Nature Medicine’.

Networks of intestinal bacteria

The researchers examined the relationship between the intestinal microbes, the way in which the disease developed, and how it responded to treatment in 270 patients with Crohn’s disease, 232 patients with ulcerative colitis and 227 healthy individuals. The intestinal samples were provided from two large patient cohorts, the Swiss IBD cohort (www.ibdcohort.ch) led by Professor Gerhard Rogler of the University Hospital of Zürich, with major contributions from many different Swiss hospitals and Gastroenterology community practices, and a separate cohort of patients from the Gastroenterologists of the Inselspital Bern. Dr. Bahtiyar Yilmaz, the co-first author of the study commented, ‘The availability of this range of material from two separate groups of patients studied over many years with unprecedented documentation of all the clinical details by Swiss gastroenterologists and the staff of the Inselspital Bern made our study unique’.

The analysis of the intestinal samples showed that the microbes in IBD patients differ significantly from those of healthy individuals. This is mainly caused by increases of some species of bacteria that can trigger or worsen the disease, and reductions in bacterial species that are important for maintaining health in the intestine. The researchers found 18 new sorts of bacteria that could affect the disease outcome. They were also able to show that body habitus, age, lifestyle and the type of treatment had a major effect on these intestinal microbes. Professor Andrew Macpherson, leader of the study and last author commented, ‘We found that the different bacterial groups were living associated together in distinct communities, and it is the disruption of these community networks between the different bacterial species affect the disease. Like the communities in human society, every individual bacterial species has its place in the community if the intestine is to remain healthy. One of these bacterial communities is especially important, because its different bacterial members produce short chain fatty acids, which feed the epithelial cells that line the surface of intestinal tissues and help them to build a tight barrier between the contents of the gut and the underlying tissues of the body.’

Computational methods are essential to interpret the results

Mathematical algorithms were used to process the results in the search within thousands of different sorts of bacteria, to find those networks of beneficial bacterial species that are important to avoid severe disease and to make the case likely to respond to therapy. Andrew Macpherson commented, ‘Patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have huge differences in the severity of the clinical course and responsiveness to treatment – this makes it difficult for doctors to decide which particular therapy is like to be successful. Sadly, at present, there are a few patients in whom almost all therapies do not work well. We hope to use these results to improve the outcome, especially for the most severely affected patients.’

Pascal Juillerat, co-first author of the study, commented, ‘Since we now know the specific microbial signatures and how the networks of beneficial and damaging bacteria are built up, we should be able to manipulate the intestinal bacteria in a designed way – specific for individual patients – as a way of settling their disease. Since every person has a different composition of their intestinal microbiota, we will need to do this on an individual basis.’

Last, but not least, the relapsing-remitting nature of IBD has huge costs for the quality of life and places a burden not only on the patients and their families, but also on the very substantial costs for Swiss Healthcare. The researchers hope that this new approach can provide a new way to help those affected and to reduce the financial burden for the Swiss community.

Source:

https://edit.cms.unibe.ch/unibe/portal/content/e796/e803/e59463/e805/e751801/e753172/e766149/media_service766165/preview_html?lang=eng&preview=preview

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles