Breaking News
March 21, 2019 - Smell of skin could lead to early diagnosis for Parkinson’s
March 21, 2019 - Difference in brain connectivity may explain autism spectrum disorder
March 21, 2019 - Untangling the microbiome — with statistics
March 21, 2019 - Human microbiome metabolites enhance colon injury by enterohemorrhagic E. coli, study shows
March 21, 2019 - Written media can improve citizens’ understanding of palliative care
March 21, 2019 - New research aims to find how asthma symptoms are aggravated
March 21, 2019 - New $9.7 million NIH grant project seeks to improve hearing restoration
March 21, 2019 - Researchers measure brain metabolite levels in people with mild memory problems
March 21, 2019 - FDA approves first drug for treatment of postpartum depression in adult women
March 20, 2019 - Gene editing and designer babies experiments face global moratorium
March 20, 2019 - Major scientific study of wound care dressings wins ‘Best Clinical or Preclinical Research Award’
March 20, 2019 - Biohaven Enrolls First Patient In Phase 3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Trial Of Troriluzole
March 20, 2019 - Big data study identifies drugs that increase risk of psychosis in youth with ADHD
March 20, 2019 - Mystery novel and dream spur key scientific insight into heart defect | News Center
March 20, 2019 - Study measures impact of policies designed to reduce air pollution in two mega-cities
March 20, 2019 - Mild sleep apnea during pregnancy changes sugar levels and may affect infant growth patterns
March 20, 2019 - SSB and Novasep collaborate to develop new membrane chromatography systems
March 20, 2019 - Leaky valve repair improves quality of life in heart failure patients
March 20, 2019 - Diattenuation Imaging offers structural information of difficult to access brain regions
March 20, 2019 - Early sports specialization linked to increased injury rates during athletic career
March 20, 2019 - Study brings clarity about milk intake for children with Duarte galactosemia
March 20, 2019 - Allergan Announces FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application for Ubrogepant for the Acute Treatment of Migraine
March 20, 2019 - Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases risk of ADHD among offspring up to three-fold
March 20, 2019 - Pioneering pediatric kidney transplant surgeon Oscar Salvatierra dies at 83 | News Center
March 20, 2019 - F.D.A. Approves First Drug for Postpartum Depression
March 20, 2019 - TB remains a major public health challenge in the European region
March 20, 2019 - Most pills contain common allergens, warn experts
March 20, 2019 - Researchers discover previously unknown mechanism by which cells can sense oxygen
March 20, 2019 - World’s leading source of data on diagnosis, treatments for aortic dissection
March 20, 2019 - Breast cancer relapse predictor may soon be a reality
March 20, 2019 - Researchers identify origin of chronic pain in humans
March 20, 2019 - Two-drug combinations containing calcium channel blocker significantly lowers BP
March 20, 2019 - King’s scientists to monitor air quality exposure of 250 children
March 20, 2019 - Preventative cardioverter defibrillator implantation is of little benefit to kidney dialysis patients
March 20, 2019 - New method based on neurofeedback may reduce anxiety
March 20, 2019 - Study explores whether alcohol consumption can have an effect on arthritis
March 20, 2019 - Merck to collaborate with GenScript for plasmid and virus manufacturing in China
March 20, 2019 - FDA Approves Zulresso (brexanolone) for the Treatment of Postpartum Depression
March 20, 2019 - Study examines long-term opioid use in patients with severe osteoarthritis
March 20, 2019 - Retired Stanford professor Edward Rubenstein, pioneer in intensive care medicine, dies at 94 | News Center
March 20, 2019 - Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center to Join Columbia University
March 20, 2019 - Call for halt to human gene editing and designer babies experiments
March 20, 2019 - Study illuminates how hot spots of genetic variation evolved in the human genome
March 20, 2019 - Roundworm study suggests alternatives for treatment of schizophrenia
March 20, 2019 - Sphingotec reports new applications of bio-ADM at 39th ISICEM
March 20, 2019 - Preventing falls through free community-based screenings for older adults
March 20, 2019 - AAOS: Supplement Use Low in Patients With Osteoporosis, Hip Fracture
March 20, 2019 - Does intensive blood pressure control reduce dementia?
March 20, 2019 - Nut consumption could be key to better cognitive health in older people
March 20, 2019 - Drinking hot tea associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer
March 20, 2019 - Androgen receptor plays vital role in regulating multiple mitochondrial processes
March 20, 2019 - NIH announces funding boost for Detroit Cardiovascular Training Program
March 20, 2019 - Study reveals another surgical option for patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears
March 20, 2019 - New robot-guided video game may be effective and low-cost solution for caregivers
March 20, 2019 - Heart Attacks Fall By One-Third Among Older Americans
March 20, 2019 - Data sharing uncovers five new risk genes for Alzheimer’s disease
March 20, 2019 - Does It Make Sense To Delay Children’s Vaccines?
March 20, 2019 - Lack of health insurance may increase Aging immigrants’ risk for cardiovascular disease
March 20, 2019 - Piece of puzzle unlocked in what drives alcohol addiction
March 20, 2019 - Researchers investigate whether Zika reservoirs are found in the Americas
March 20, 2019 - Compounds found in coffee may inhibit growth of prostate cancer
March 20, 2019 - Lab Innovations returns to the NEC on 30 & 31 October 2019
March 20, 2019 - How genes affect tobacco and alcohol use
March 20, 2019 - Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have similar impacts on patients
March 20, 2019 - Individuals with infection history have higher risk of developing Sjögren’s syndrome
March 20, 2019 - Nursing home residents benefit from individualized multi-component exercise program
March 20, 2019 - Plant cellulose bone implants are “viable” option to support new bone growth, study finds
March 20, 2019 - Older people living in retirement communities benefit from improved health
March 20, 2019 - UTSA professor helps train first responders to detect prescription opioid overdoses
March 20, 2019 - Biohaven’s Verdiperstat Receives Orphan Drug Designation From FDA For Multiple System Atrophy
March 20, 2019 - Smoking may limit body’s ability to fight dangerous form of skin cancer
March 20, 2019 - Researchers receive $9.7-million grant to develop new hearing-loss treatments for deaf
March 20, 2019 - TGen and ABL sign agreement to distribute new TB test technology
March 20, 2019 - UCD researchers lead development of new urine test to detect prostate cancer
March 20, 2019 - Miniature brains that can move muscles, grown in the lab
March 20, 2019 - Servier and Oncodesign announce research and drug development partnership
March 20, 2019 - FDA warns marketer of unapproved products claiming to treat addiction, chronic pain
March 20, 2019 - TB Medicine Pretomanid Enters Regulatory Review Process in the United States
March 20, 2019 - Breastfeeding can erase effects of prenatal violence for newborns
March 20, 2019 - Tens of Thousands of Heart Patients May Not Need Open-Heart Surgery
New discovery of how organs form helps scientists to develop treatments for diabetes, cancer

New discovery of how organs form helps scientists to develop treatments for diabetes, cancer

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

In a new study, researchers at the University of Copenhagen show that the development of a certain type of immature stem cells – also known as progenitor cells – depends on the quantity of a special protein and interaction with other cells in the body. The new study has just been published in the scientific journal Developmental Cell.

Many diseases are caused by the loss of certain types of cells, such as the insulin-producing beta cells in diabetes – or dysfunction of cells, as in cancer. Stem cell researchers have struggled for years to excel at restoring the normal healthy cell types. However, the question is how stem cells can be induced to behave the same way in a petri dish as they do in the body.

Closer to a mechanism that can control cellular development

The Semb Group at the University of Copenhagen aims to find out how the insulin-producing beta cells are formed naturally in the pancreas, so that this process can be replicated in the laboratory.

“We examined how much progenitor cells move around as the pancreas develops in the embryo, and if their journey to distinct areas (so-called niches) within the organ can explain what they eventually will become. We discovered that before the progenitors have decided their fate, they move around a lot. We could also show that their movement to specific niches, where they acquire their final fate, is determined by how much of the protein P120ctn they produce. By understanding this mechanism, we can improve our methods for making the correct cell type from stem cells in a petri dish for future cell-replacement therapy of diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, and get new insight into how to prevent spreading of cancer,” explains Henrik Semb, Professor and Executive Director, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem Cell Biology, DanStem, University of Copenhagen.

Cell fate is dictated by how sticky the cell is

Restoring the function of dysfunctional organs requires understanding of how organ shape emerges and its influence on cell fate. Previous research has generated conflicting results. Some results suggest that the future fate of progenitor cells is predetermined, meaning their fate is decided by inheritance before they end up in their final niche, while other results suggest the opposite, namely that their destiny is determined at their final destination in the environment.

“We therefore decided to take a closer look at this problem by examining in greater detail how progenitor cells move around and whether their movements correlate with their final fate. By recording three-dimensional movies of fluorescently labeled individual progenitor cells within the early pancreas, we realized that the progenitor cells, prior to their fate decision, continue to change their positions to shape the architecture of the pancreas,” explains first author of the study Pia Nyeng, Assistant Professor, DanStem, University of Copenhagen.

This observation strongly indicates that the fates of cells do not appear to be predetermined, but rather determined by the particular niche at their final destination. To examine how the final positioning of cells in the organ is controlled, the researchers found that the signaling protein, P120ctn, plays an important role.

“This protein affects adhesion (stickiness) between the cells. Cells with high expression of P120ctn are more adhesive compared to cells with low expression of P120ctn. We observed that cells with high expression of P120ctn remain in the central part of the pancreas, while cells with low expression of P120ctn migrate toward the peripheral part of the pancreas. To test our theory, we reduced adhesion in a few progenitors within the central part of the pancreas by inactivating the gene encoding P120ctn. By using movies to analyze the behavior of these cells we saw that they migrated to the peripheral part of the pancreas and developed into enzyme-producing acinar cells.”

Might slow down metastasis

Spreading of cancer is strongly connected to a decrease in the adhesive properties of cancer cells. Decreased adhesion enables the cancer cells in an organ to leave the niche they came from and invade the surrounding tissues, including the blood vessels, to metastasize to other organs. Therefore, cancer research has focused on trying to prevent the decrease in adhesion, or to reinstate high adhesion in cancer cells without worrying so much about whether this could lead to higher adhesion than in the healthy cells.

“Our experiments show that what drives segregation of cells is their intrinsic differences in adhesion. This suggests that it is not the cell’s adhesive characteristics per se but rather its relative adhesion to the neighboring cells that dictates whether they will segregate (invade neighboring tissue in cancer). Therefore, to counteract metastasis, cancer therapy should try to reinstate normal levels of adhesion.”

Source:

https://healthsciences.ku.dk/newsfaculty-news/2019/03/discovery-of-how-organs-form-helps-stem-cell-researchers-in-their-quest-to-develop-future-treatments-of-diabetes-and-cancer/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles