Breaking News
April 22, 2019 - The U.S government may account for up to $37.8 billion due to opioid epidemic
April 22, 2019 - Improving ACA’s Insurance Coverage Provisions will lead to better care for patients
April 22, 2019 - Study identifies possible therapeutic effects of curcumin on stomach cancer
April 22, 2019 - Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
April 22, 2019 - Scientists use CRISPR for possible ‘bubble boy’ therapy
April 22, 2019 - Hematologist (and a mom, singer, actress and much more) stands up for diversity
April 22, 2019 - Novel AI voice tool can help diagnose PTSD
April 22, 2019 - Overlooked part of cell’s internal machinery may hold key to treating acute myeloid leukemia
April 22, 2019 - MIT scientists reverse some behavioral symptoms of rare neurodevelopmental disorder
April 22, 2019 - Scientists find new therapy target for drug-induced liver failure
April 22, 2019 - Opioid dose variability could lead to increased risk of overdose, study suggests
April 22, 2019 - Newly developed model predicts salmonella outbreaks several months in advance
April 22, 2019 - Deep-learning model better predicts survival outcomes for lung cancer
April 22, 2019 - One in Three U.S. Adults Aged 35 to 44 May Have Drinking Problem
April 22, 2019 - Why the measles virus is so contagious
April 22, 2019 - Magnet ‘Zap’ to the Brain Might Jumpstart Aging Memory
April 22, 2019 - Immune response to gut microbes may be early indicator of type 1 diabetes
April 22, 2019 - Destination Limbo: Health Suffers Among Asylum Seekers In Crowded Border Shelter
April 22, 2019 - Research shows how dopamine contributes to sex differences in worms
April 22, 2019 - Marijuana users weigh less compared to non-users
April 22, 2019 - Research uncovers critical RNA processing aberrations in ALS and FTD
April 22, 2019 - Many cancer patients use marijuana and prescription opioids, study reveals
April 22, 2019 - Frailty may up fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes
April 22, 2019 - Study provides new insight into how obesity, insulin resistance can affect cognition
April 22, 2019 - Study seeks to better understand the genetic causes for hypospadias
April 22, 2019 - FDA grants approval of first generic naloxone nasal spray to treat opioid overdose
April 22, 2019 - FDA authorizes marketing of first medical device to treat ADHD
April 22, 2019 - Vanderbilt researchers to develop and test ‘safe harbor’ standards of care
April 22, 2019 - You’re probably brushing your teeth wrong – here are four tips for better dental health
April 22, 2019 - Pharmacy closures contribute to medication non-adherence among heart patients
April 22, 2019 - Using Edge AI technology to observe behavior of cattle
April 22, 2019 - Bacteria play a role in the development of stomach ulcers in pigs
April 22, 2019 - Hand Hygiene Compliance Poor in Task Transitions
April 22, 2019 - smoking could harm your baby
April 22, 2019 - Scientists identify rare, paradoxical response to antiretroviral therapy
April 21, 2019 - More TV, Tablets, More Attention Issues at Age 5
April 21, 2019 - Drug reduces risk of kidney failure in people with diabetes, study finds
April 21, 2019 - New research identifies novel link between antibiotic resistance and climate change
April 21, 2019 - Simple intervention can provide lasting protection for teens against junk food marketing
April 21, 2019 - The protein p38-gamma identified as a new therapeutic target in liver cancer
April 21, 2019 - Novel system enables researchers to study bacteria within mini-tissues in a dish
April 21, 2019 - Discovery of oral cancer biomarkers could save thousands of lives
April 21, 2019 - Geneva Exhibition committee gives gold medals to two medications developed by Kazan
April 21, 2019 - Scientists aim to minimize or eliminate hair loss during cancer treatment
April 21, 2019 - WiFi interacts with signaling pathways in the human brain
April 21, 2019 - Stroke Hospitalizations Down in Black, White Medicare Enrollees
April 21, 2019 - First common risk genes discovered for autism
April 21, 2019 - Researchers map auditory sensory system of the mouse brain
April 21, 2019 - Scientists Bring Pig’s Brain, Dead 4 Hours, Back to ‘Cellular Activity’
April 21, 2019 - Virtual reality a promising tool for reducing fears and phobia in autism
April 21, 2019 - New analysis lists out opportunities for U.S. medical schools to advance population health
April 21, 2019 - More sleep may help teens with ADHD focus and organize
April 21, 2019 - Breakthrough antibody treatment suppresses HIV without antivirals
April 21, 2019 - AveXis Data Reinforce Effectiveness of Zolgensma in Treating Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Type 1
April 21, 2019 - Is your hand pain arthritis, carpal tunnel or something else?
April 21, 2019 - Measles outbreaks may become more frequent if vaccination rates continue to decline
April 21, 2019 - Researchers succeed in accelerating process of creating 3D images
April 21, 2019 - Tiny worm mimics key genetic risk for Alzheimer’s
April 21, 2019 - Angry dreams explained by brain waves
April 20, 2019 - Parenteral Antimicrobial Tx at Home Burdens Children’s Caregivers
April 20, 2019 - Diabetes treatment may keep dementia, Alzheimer’s at bay
April 20, 2019 - New bandage-like biosensor collects and analyzes sweat
April 20, 2019 - A comprehensive, centralized database of bovine milk compounds
April 20, 2019 - Two new epigenetic regulators maintain self-renewal of embryonic stem cells
April 20, 2019 - New Evidence That Veggies Beat Steak for Heart Health
April 20, 2019 - Study reveals genes associated with heavy drinking and alcoholism
April 20, 2019 - Texas A&M AgriLife becomes the newest member of NutriRECS international consortium
April 20, 2019 - In most states, insurance won’t cover addiction treatments
April 20, 2019 - Computer-based memory games may be beneficial for individuals with fragile X syndrome
April 20, 2019 - Timing of food intake influences molecular clock in the liver of mice
April 20, 2019 - Precise decoding of breast cancer cells paves way for new treatment option
April 20, 2019 - Scientists use 3D imaging to help model complex processes performed by placenta
April 20, 2019 - MediciNova Announces Plans to Move Forward with a Phase 3 Trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in ALS
April 20, 2019 - Genetic variants that protect against obesity could aid new weight loss medicines
April 20, 2019 - New technology developed for microscopic imaging in living organisms
April 20, 2019 - when quitting cigarettes, consider using more nicotine, not less
April 20, 2019 - Key proteins can block Listeria without triggering the death of host cells
April 20, 2019 - Researchers create a working model of cerebral tract to study brain function
April 20, 2019 - New study shows that microbes can help break toxic chemical in dust
April 20, 2019 - Scientists use NIR light and injected DNA nanodevice to guide stem cells to injury
Secrets of early life revealed from less than half a teaspoon of blood

Secrets of early life revealed from less than half a teaspoon of blood

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
newborn
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A global team of scientists have mapped the developmental pathway of a newborn’s life for the first time. The research, published in Nature Communications, could transform our understanding of health and disease in babies.

Co-led by the MRC Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the new study included lifting the lid on what genes are turned on, what proteins are being made and what metabolites are changing in the first seven days of human life.

Newborn babies are the most vulnerable population when it comes to infectious disease. Establishing key pathways in early development could help measure the impact of factors such as diet, disease and maternal health, as well as key interventions like vaccines.

The study was conducted by the Expanded Program on Immunization Consortium (EPIC) research team, which includes MRC Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, the University of British Columbia, and the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research.

The first week of a newborn’s life is a time of rapid biological change as the baby adapts to living outside the womb, suddenly exposed to new bacteria and viruses, yet surprisingly little is known about these early changes. One of the biggest challenges in gathering data on newborn development has been sourcing a large enough blood sample for comprehensive profiling from a tiny newborn. The team overcame this with pioneering laboratory techniques applied on less than half a teaspoon of blood.

By using sophisticated software and new approaches they integrated different kinds of measurements to interpret the complex data derived from the precious samples. Thousands of changes over the first week of life were found including in gene expression and components involved in immunity.

Senior author Beate Kampmann, Professor of Paediatric Infection and Immunity from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Director of its Vaccine Centre, said: “Up to two thirds of newborn deaths can be prevented if effective health measures are provided at birth and during the first week of life. Of the 5.4 million under-five child deaths per year, about half occur during the neonatal period, i.e. the first month of life.

“Knowledge about key developmental processes during our earliest days remains sparse, but this study plugs some of those crucial gaps. This work is particularly important for vaccine research. Newborns have very limited protection from infection in early life and there is an urgent need to optimise protective measures, including vaccines, used in this age group.”

Working closely with local communities, the research team recruited newborns in a health centre in The Gambia, West Africa. They took blood samples from the babies on the day of birth, and then again either on day one, three or seven.

The samples were processed in the collaborating laboratories in Africa and North America, where the researchers discovered dramatic molecular changes driven by development. The findings were then validated in a second group of Australasian newborns. The two independent cohorts were found to have common, highly dynamic developmental trajectories, suggesting that the changes do not occur at random, but instead follow an age-specific pathway.

Prof Kampmann said: “The MRC Unit in The Gambia has carried out important studies in newborns for a long time in order to optimize the use of vaccines. Given our excellent community relations and infrastructure, we were ready to partner with our collaborators to apply the new tools of systems biology to very small blood samples. We wanted to establish this work in a real world situation in order to gain insight into immune development in a setting where new interventions can have the biggest impact on newborn survival.”

Ofer Levy, Director of the Precision Vaccines Program at Boston Children’s Hospital and a senior author on the paper, said: “Most infections in the world occur early in life, and newborns have the greatest susceptibility and the worst outcomes. This work provides a valuable window into health and disease in the first week of life. Our exciting findings allows us to ask bigger questions about the differences between different populations and the impact of biomedical interventions such as vaccines on development.

“Currently, most vaccines are developed by trial and error. We seek deep molecular insight into vaccine function in early life so we can better develop infant vaccines for the future. We demonstrated that it’s possible to recruit newborns in a resource-poor setting, obtain small amounts of their blood, process it, ship it, conduct systems biology assays and integrate the results—turning big data into knowledge.”

Going forward, the EPIC team is currently investigating the impact of different vaccines on this early developmental trajectory in a larger cohort in The Gambia and Papua New Guinea.

The authors acknowledge limitations of their study including validation in larger cohorts and increasing our functional insights into the discovered pathways.


Immune discovery should help develop improved vaccines for infants and newborns


More information:
Dynamic molecular changes during the first week of human life follow a robust developmental trajectory, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08794-x , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08794-x


Provided by
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Citation:
Secrets of early life revealed from less than half a teaspoon of blood (2019, March 12)
retrieved 18 March 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-03-secrets-early-life-revealed-teaspoon.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles