Breaking News
April 18, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ You Have Questions, We Have Answers
April 18, 2019 - Diabetic drug shows potential to be repurposed as heart disease treatment for non-diabetic patients
April 18, 2019 - New estimation method assesses natural variations in sex ratio at birth
April 18, 2019 - UTA scientist receives $1.17 million grant for cancer research
April 18, 2019 - Coagulation factor VIIa prevents bleeds in hemophilia animal models
April 18, 2019 - Researchers identify risk factors for severe infection after knee replacement
April 18, 2019 - Mass drug administration can offer community-level protection against malaria
April 18, 2019 - FDA’s added sugar label could have substantial health and cost-saving benefits
April 18, 2019 - Researchers identify cause of inherited metabolic disorder
April 18, 2019 - Single strip of white paint not sufficient to protect people who ride bikes
April 18, 2019 - Partner status influences link between sexual problems and self-efficacy in breast cancer survivors
April 18, 2019 - Colorectal Neoplasia Risk Up for Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors
April 18, 2019 - Rigid spine muscular dystrophy – Genetics Home Reference
April 18, 2019 - Simple bile acid blood test could tell risk of stillbirth
April 18, 2019 - Center for Experimental Therapeutics aims to enable all steps of drug development | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Falling for telephone scams could be an early sign of dementia
April 18, 2019 - Researchers annotate key neuronal proteins in lamprey genome
April 18, 2019 - Study uncovers new biomarker for personalized cancer treatments
April 18, 2019 - Scientists enter research collaboration to find a cure for cancer
April 18, 2019 - Study to compare benefits of tai chi and mindfulness meditation on MS symptoms
April 18, 2019 - Gestational diabetes during pregnancy may increase risk of type 1 diabetes in children
April 18, 2019 - Is a New Remedy for Body Odor on the Horizon?
April 18, 2019 - Orthostatic hypotension – Genetics Home Reference
April 18, 2019 - Healing the heartbreak of stillbirth and newborn death
April 18, 2019 - Conference to highlight advances in human immune monitoring, bioinformatics | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Bacteria use viruses for self-recognition, study reveals
April 18, 2019 - New adhesive patch could help reduce post-heart attack muscle damage
April 18, 2019 - Researchers analyze the effects of dark play in a serious video game
April 18, 2019 - Filial cannibalism and offspring abandonment may be forms of parental care
April 18, 2019 - Two proteins act in concert to maintain a healthy heart in mice, shows study
April 18, 2019 - Scientists create a functioning 3D printed heart
April 18, 2019 - Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation improves disease symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
April 18, 2019 - Majority of men struggle to understand diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
April 18, 2019 - Researchers create new small molecules that may combat equine encephalitis viruses
April 18, 2019 - Animal-assisted therapy improves social behavior in patients with brain injuries
April 18, 2019 - Some viruses help protect harmful bacteria in CF patients | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Outpatient healthcare providers inappropriately prescribe antibiotics to 40% of patients
April 18, 2019 - Men who have a resting heart rate of 75 bpm are twice as likely to die early
April 18, 2019 - Novel serum biomarkers to detect NAFLD-related fibrosis
April 18, 2019 - New study delves deeper into individual genomic differences than ever before
April 18, 2019 - Gilead and Galapagos Announce Filgotinib Meets Primary Endpoint in the Phase 3 FINCH 3 Study in Methotrexate-Naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
April 18, 2019 - Emotional mirror neurons found in rats
April 18, 2019 - Sylvia Plevritis appointed chair of biomedical data science | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Yeast strain provides manufacturing boost to low-calorie sweetener derived from lactose
April 18, 2019 - One in five children and youth suffer from a mental disorder
April 18, 2019 - Improper inhaler use common in children with asthma
April 18, 2019 - C-Path and CDISC release global Therapeutic Area Standard for HIV research
April 18, 2019 - Integrating AI to analyze imaging data allows early recognition of heart disease
April 18, 2019 - Low-cost, high-speed algorithm may allow animal-free chemical toxicity testing
April 18, 2019 - HPV-negative cervical cancers are more aggressive with worse prognosis
April 18, 2019 - AI detects prostate cancer with same level of accuracy as experienced radiologists
April 18, 2019 - Study resolves sex differences in psychiatric illness risk
April 18, 2019 - Novartis Announces FDA Filing Acceptance and Priority Review of Brolucizumab (RTH258) for Patients with Wet AMD
April 18, 2019 - Cocktail of common antibiotics can fight resistant E. coli
April 18, 2019 - Persis Drell to give keynote address at medical school diploma ceremony | News Center
April 18, 2019 - EpicTogether: Remembering Our Why
April 18, 2019 - Study identifies novel loci contributing to asthma susceptibility in adults
April 18, 2019 - Gut bacteria and pregnancy
April 18, 2019 - New study finds that screening could help prevent rare types of cervical cancer
April 17, 2019 - Spatial orgnization of the genome can be altered using small molecules
April 17, 2019 - AEDs Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Patients
April 17, 2019 - Telemedicine tied to more antibiotics for kids, study finds
April 17, 2019 - Two medical students awarded 2019 Soros Fellowships for New Americans | News Center
April 17, 2019 - Sociologist Constance A. Nathanson Awarded Guggenheim Fellowship
April 17, 2019 - Empathy and hormones could account for aggressive behavior in children, shows study
April 17, 2019 - Researchers develop oral appliance to help sufferers of sleep apnea
April 17, 2019 - Neuronal transport factor detects its target transcripts in more complex manner than previously thought
April 17, 2019 - New drug-delivery system senses high oxidant levels, responds to body chemistry and environment
April 17, 2019 - Health Tip: Horseback Trail Riding Safety
April 17, 2019 - Scientists outline the promises and pitfalls of machine learning in medicine
April 17, 2019 - $12 million grant renewal for flu vaccine research | News Center
April 17, 2019 - Lisa Kachnic, MD, Joins Columbia University as Chair of Radiation Oncology
April 17, 2019 - New study sheds light on how extreme temperature hampers spermatogenesis in insects
April 17, 2019 - Study tests high-tech, non-pharmaceutical way to address ADHD and distractibility
April 17, 2019 - New EZ-2 evaporator for clinical biochemistry sample preparation
April 17, 2019 - Fat shaming celebrities may make women more judgemental about being overweight
April 17, 2019 - Magic mouthwash effectively reduces mouth sore pain caused by radiation therapy
April 17, 2019 - CBD could help slip medications into the brain
April 17, 2019 - Scientists characterize 2017 pneumonic plague outbreak in Madagascar
April 17, 2019 - Human iPSC-derived MSCs from aged individuals acquire a rejuvenation signature
Role of immunological imprinting in elicitation of new antibodies

Role of immunological imprinting in elicitation of new antibodies

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

We are repeatedly exposed to the influenza virus via infections, vaccinations and our communal environments. The annual flu shot is believed to be the best line of defense, and doctors recommend vaccinations every year because the flu virus is in a constant state of adaptation and mutation, rendering older vaccines obsolete.

The conventional wisdom guiding our long-established annual flu shot comes from an understanding that once a person is newly vaccinated, the immune system is reset and all new antibodies are directed to the new flu strain.

However, new research from the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin published in a recent issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe highlights the role played by immunological imprinting — or how the immune system fights the flu after previous exposure to the virus via infections or vaccinations — in the elicitation of new antibodies.

“After being vaccinated with a new strain of flu, our immune systems appear to be expanding and boosting antibodies generated by previous exposures to earlier flu viruses, whether by infection or vaccination,” said George Georgiou, a professor of biomedical and chemical engineering and molecular biosciences, a leader in the field of therapeutics and immune responses and co-author of the study.

The researchers examined the composition and dynamics of an individual donor’s antibody repertoire over a five-year period during which the donor had been infected or vaccinated with influenza multiple times. The study suggests our immune systems are “imprinted” by antibodies that had been elicited in response to influenza strains encountered previously in life.

“Each vaccination still elicits new antibodies that are highly specific to the new strains, but these new antibodies decay over time, returning to the antibody repertoire that already existed before the vaccination,” said Jiwon Lee, a postdoctoral fellow in Georgiou’s Laboratory of Protein Therapeutics and Applied Immunology who led the study.

The researchers found that the antibody repertoires remained highly static throughout. More than 70 percent of the antibody molecules found in the donor’s bloodstream remained the same over five years. More than two-thirds of these persistent antibodies targeted invariant parts of the virus — the elements that do not change from one year to the next.

These persistent antibodies continue to be produced by the immune system for years and can affect our ability to generate novel antibodies that recognize unique molecular features of a new seasonal strain.

“Currently, there is a very large scientific effort underway to design flu vaccine candidates that focus the immune system to produce antibodies targeting the invariant sites of vulnerability of the influenza virus,” Lee said.

Vaccines that can imprint one with highly potent antibodies and, therefore, combat a broad range of influenza strains, could reduce or even eliminate the need for annual vaccinations.

“Now that we have delineated the role of antibody imprinting in adults, the next step is to analyze the immune response to influenza early in life in order to understand how this phenomenon of antibody imprinting arises in the first place, perhaps even in infancy,” Lee said.

Influenza is still one of the world’s most widespread viruses and is extremely difficult to contain. Globally, the influenza virus infects more than 1 billion people and results in approximately half a million deaths annually. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is investing heavily in the development of a universal flu vaccine that could provide long-term protection against multiple subtypes of flu. Such a vaccine could eliminate the need for the annual flu shot entirely.

Until such a universal flu vaccine is successfully developed, the annual flu shot is unquestionably still the best way to prevent infection.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles