Breaking News
May 26, 2018 - New research shows why babies need to move in the womb
May 26, 2018 - UK steps forward to tackle global antimicrobial resistance
May 26, 2018 - CRISPR-Cas9-based strategy allows researchers to precisely alter hundreds of different genes
May 26, 2018 - UT Southwestern-led researchers find new way to determine prognosis of invasive kidney cancer
May 26, 2018 - Researchers develop film to prevent bacteria from growing on dental retainers and aligners
May 26, 2018 - Mobile health intervention for people with serious mental illness as effective as clinic-based treatment
May 26, 2018 - Vaginal estradiol tablets outperform moisturizers when treating vulvovaginal problems
May 26, 2018 - Researchers call for new genetic tests for congenital diseases
May 26, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Campaign promises kept, plus ‘nerd reports’
May 26, 2018 - Lung-on-a-chip technology could streamline drug-testing for pulmonary fibrosis
May 26, 2018 - Study finds early antibiotic initiation for majority of premature infants
May 26, 2018 - New environmental monitoring project finds increased numbers of deer ticks in Southern Indiana
May 26, 2018 - Pediatricians Should Advocate for Life Support Training
May 26, 2018 - Cannabidiol significantly reduces seizures in patients with severe form of epilepsy
May 26, 2018 - Allergies can have serious, far-reaching consequences on adolescents
May 26, 2018 - Scientists develop lab-based system to study mechanisms of common liver disease
May 25, 2018 - New guidelines may help pathologists to more accurately classify and diagnose invasive melanoma
May 25, 2018 - Immune cells promote lung cancer metastases by forming clots in tumors, study finds
May 25, 2018 - Can Excess Weight in Toddlers Cause Brain Drain?
May 25, 2018 - Studying insight
May 25, 2018 - Researchers reveal potent new mechanism of action for treatment of IBD
May 25, 2018 - Study shows lack of follow-up care for patients with concussion
May 25, 2018 - Study establishes the importance of haploid cells
May 25, 2018 - Coveted BMJ award bestowed on The Clatterbridge Cancer Center
May 25, 2018 - AACN outlines evidence-based protocols and clinical strategies to manage alarms
May 25, 2018 - Origami inspires researchers to develop new solution for tissue regeneration
May 25, 2018 - Melorheostosis – Genetics Home Reference
May 25, 2018 - Non-addictive pain medication changing therapy for substance use disorders
May 25, 2018 - Delayed lactate measurements in sepsis patients increase risk of in-hospital death
May 25, 2018 - Researchers identify novel epigenetic mutations as cause of neurodevelopmental, congenital disorders
May 25, 2018 - UD researchers examine connection between DNA replication in HPV and cancer
May 25, 2018 - Researchers identify neurons that play key role in aggressive behavior
May 25, 2018 - Snail’s eye inspires new type of RIOCATH urinary catheter
May 25, 2018 - Russian researchers develop high-tech device-transformer for ultrasound examination
May 25, 2018 - Researchers discover unexpected chemosensor pathway for predator odor-evoked innate fear behaviors
May 25, 2018 - Researchers build 3-D printer that offers sweet solution to making detailed structures
May 25, 2018 - Nearly one in three people know someone addicted to opioids
May 25, 2018 - Research suggests link between faulty gene, alcohol, and heart failure
May 25, 2018 - New findings could help fine-tune treatment for cancer patients
May 25, 2018 - New cancer treatment approach targets specific sugar receptors
May 25, 2018 - Skin responsible for uptake of cancer-causing compounds during barbecuing than lungs
May 25, 2018 - Early-onset cannabis use linked to further drug abuse problems
May 25, 2018 - Covered California takes aim at hospital C-section rates
May 25, 2018 - FDA Approves Palynziq (pegvaliase-pqpz) for the Treatment of Adults with Phenylketonuria
May 25, 2018 - Arthritis Glossary
May 25, 2018 - Study links breast cancer to the body’s internal clock
May 25, 2018 - Strenuous exercise in teenage years may protect against height loss later in life
May 25, 2018 - FDA approves novel enzyme therapy for adults with rare and serious genetic disease
May 25, 2018 - New research project aims at developing effective interventions for kids with DLD
May 25, 2018 - Middlemen who save $$ on medicines — but maybe not for you
May 25, 2018 - Study sheds new light on sharp rise in fatal drug overdoses in recent years
May 25, 2018 - Students propose revision of listeriosis guidelines for safer pregnancy
May 25, 2018 - TNFi Exposure In Utero Does Not Up Serious Infection Risk
May 25, 2018 - Organization of cells in the inner ear enables the sense and sensitivity of hearing
May 25, 2018 - Yoga May Be Right Move Against Urinary Incontinence
May 25, 2018 - Drinking recommended amount of milk could protect obese children against metabolic syndrome
May 25, 2018 - New cytokine network can repair tissue damage in the intestine, study finds
May 25, 2018 - Lyme disease researcher dispels misconceptions about ticks and provides prevention tips
May 25, 2018 - Penn researchers find link between social media usage and underage drinking
May 25, 2018 - Unique nanotechnology method to simplify skin disease diagnosis
May 25, 2018 - Study reveals new protective mechanism for tumor cells in breast cancer
May 25, 2018 - FRAME Alternatives Laboratory chosen for major European liver research collaboration
May 25, 2018 - Study shows yogurt may dampen chronic inflammation linked to multiple diseases
May 25, 2018 - Invasive cancers that are born to be bad show detectable differences from harmless tumors
May 25, 2018 - Study identifies new mechanism involved in development of Lou Gehrig’s disease
May 25, 2018 - UAB professor receives award for malaria prevention study in pregnant women in Cameroon
May 25, 2018 - Study provides blueprint of how fruit flies can be used to screen potentially pathogenic human genes
May 25, 2018 - New drug-delivering nanoparticle could offer better way to treat brain tumors
May 25, 2018 - Kessler Foundation scientists compare two tests for assessing learning in individuals with MS
May 25, 2018 - Stroke Symptoms and Diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)
May 25, 2018 - Protein goes against the family to prevent cancer
May 25, 2018 - Drugmakers blamed for blocking generics have milked prices and cost U.S. billions
May 25, 2018 - Speakers announced for National Medicines Symposium 2018
May 25, 2018 - GSK Receives FDA Approval of Arnuity Ellipta for Asthma in Children From 5 Years of Age
May 25, 2018 - Pfizer settles kickback case related to copay assistance for $24m
May 25, 2018 - Nuclear pore functions are essential for T cell survival
May 25, 2018 - Study defines molecular basis to explain connection between mother’s nutrition and infant growth
May 24, 2018 - IHI hosts representatives to develop a national action plan for patient safety
May 24, 2018 - Zika detection breakthrough by University of Queensland
May 24, 2018 - FDA Alert: 95% Ethyl Alcohol Product by Ethanol Extraction: Recall
Life expectancy gains have slowed dramatically across the world

Life expectancy gains have slowed dramatically across the world

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Increases in human life expectancy have slowed dramatically across the world since 1950, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Although a “ceiling effect” is expected as average lifespan approaches its biological limit, the study found that the trend towards slower gains–and even declines–in lifespan is worst among low-lifespan countries.

“This is not about us hitting the ceiling; the slowdown has been sharpest in countries that have the most life expectancy to gain,” says David Bishai, PhD, professor in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health.

The finding, reported in BMC Public Health on January 17, does not have a clear explanation, although it shows that progress in health technology since 1950 has not been enough to keep longevity increasing at its historic rates in populations.

“It’s a rebuke to the idea that you can fix global health just by inventing more stuff,” Bishai says, adding “New health technology has been essential to making strides in life expectancy, of course, but our predecessors in the 1950s were making faster progress with the basics of soap, sanitation and public health.”

Bishai and Carolina Cardona, a PhD student at the Bloomberg School, examined life expectancy data for 139 countries and for each one calculated the “decadal” life expectancy gain–the gain from a given year to a decade later–during the period 1950-2009. The analysis revealed that for the total sample, the mean decadal gain started at an impressive 9.7 years during the 1950s but fell more or less steadily to just 1.9 years during the 2000s. The study did not break down data by country or region.

Cardona and Bishai stratified the countries in the sample by their life expectancies, and found that the highest lifespan countries, with life expectancies at birth of at least 71 years, declined from a mean decadal gain of 4.8 years in the 1950s to 2.4 years in 2000-2010. That result was unsurprising, given that life expectancies in these countries are approaching the maximum lifespan of 71-83 years.

However, the researchers found an even steeper decline in countries in the lowest stratum of lifespan, with life expectancies under 51 years. For countries in this category the mean decadal change in life expectancy dropped continuously from a promising gain of 7.4 years in the 1950s to a worrisome loss of 6.8 years in the 2000s. In other words, the low-lifespan countries on average went from experiencing big gains to sharp declines in life expectancy.

Bishai notes that the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which generally hit hardest in low-lifespan countries, is a factor in this trend but doesn’t fully explain it. “The slowdown in life expectancy gains started before AIDS hit in the 1980s and 90s and occurred even in regions that did not have big problems with this disease,” he says.

Another potential factor relates to changes during 1950-2009 in the methods used to calculate life expectancy, but again Bishai thinks that can’t be the whole answer. “The slowdown trend persisted through the 1970s and 2000s when demographers started using more modern methods,” he says.

He suspects that an important driver of the overall trend is a widespread failure of governance. “Nowadays, the countries with persistently low life expectancy are countries that generally are fragile states–some are not even trying to increase their life expectancy,” Bishai says.

That in turn suggests that global public health efforts need to be about more than providing health technologies. “We need also to promote political will and social consensus for public health measures in the countries that need it most. If the national government is underperforming, public health can act on political will in districts and villages.” he says, “We used to be good at this and if we can get it back then I think we can again see the kinds of improvements we were seeing in the 1950s.”

“The slowing pace of life expectancy gains since 1950” was written by Carolina Cardona and David Bishai.

Source:

https://www.jhsph.edu/news/news-releases/2018/life-expectancy-gains-are-slowing-in-both-rich-and-poor-countries.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles