Breaking News
June 20, 2018 - Elevated NT-proBNP Found to Up Cardiovascular Risk in T2DM
June 20, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: White-Sutton syndrome
June 20, 2018 - Canadian team reports success in transplanting hepatitis C organs
June 20, 2018 - Separating migrant children from parents at US border tantamount to child abuse
June 20, 2018 - Study finds more information about how gene linked to ASD affects the brain
June 20, 2018 - Floppy eyelids linked to sleep apnea
June 20, 2018 - Can-Fite provides update on Phase II clinical trial with drug candidate Namodenoson
June 20, 2018 - KIYATEC enrolls first patients with solid tumors in clinical study of its EV3D drug response assay
June 20, 2018 - Study finds growing support to allow pharmacists to write prescriptions
June 20, 2018 - Italian innovative SME receives 2.5 million Euro from RedSeed Ventures
June 20, 2018 - AHA: Kids Can Drown Quickly and Silently, So Prevention Is Key
June 20, 2018 - Continuous glucose monitors proven cost-effective, add to quality of life for diabetics
June 20, 2018 - Researchers use droplet-sized ‘miniecosystems’ to test therapeutic potential of molecules
June 20, 2018 - New approach could provide objective and easy-to-obtain measure of dietary adherence
June 20, 2018 - Dual-therapy approach can help boost motor recovery in stroke victims
June 20, 2018 - ‘Miracle treatment’ long-term success for babies with diabetes
June 20, 2018 - Rheumatoid Arthritis patients with depression have increased risk of disease flare
June 20, 2018 - NTU launches new research centers to prevent and treat diseases affecting Singaporeans
June 20, 2018 - Merck enters into agreement with HistoCyte Laboratories to distribute cell line reference products
June 20, 2018 - Researchers examine risk factors for opioid dependence in patients undergoing surgery for DS
June 20, 2018 - Study finds substantial variation in cardiovascular risk across India
June 20, 2018 - Kidney donation among carefully-selected older adults poses minimal risks
June 20, 2018 - Effects of atrial fibrillation can be reduced or reversed by losing weight
June 20, 2018 - Allergan’s Oral CGRP Receptor Antagonist Atogepant Demonstrates Robust Efficacy and Safety in Episodic Migraine Prevention in a Phase 2b/3 Clinical Trial
June 20, 2018 - The novel insights of proteoglycans in mineralized tissues
June 20, 2018 - Scientists shed light on key aspect of healthy cell division
June 20, 2018 - Circulating bone turnover markers not linked to hip fracture risk, shows study
June 20, 2018 - Scientists obtain key information about proteins from single human cells
June 20, 2018 - Scientists identify novel genes linked with infantile forms of schizophrenia
June 20, 2018 - Low-dose aspirin could help pregnant women with high blood pressure avoid a dangerous condition
June 20, 2018 - Unusual gene provides novel insight into how the brain wires itself
June 20, 2018 - Study finds IV acetaminophen to be no more effective than oral counterpart for colectomy patients
June 20, 2018 - MAARA to celebrate its 50th anniversary with lecture titled ‘The Future of Asthma’
June 20, 2018 - Administration eases way for small businesses to buy insurance in bulk
June 20, 2018 - High-Quality Diet May Decrease Mortality Risk in Cancer Survivors
June 20, 2018 - JAMA editorial on ECG screening and cardiac risks
June 20, 2018 - Study hints at benefits of lifestyle interventions in reducing dementia risk
June 20, 2018 - Low blood levels of vitamin D linked to increased risk of interstitial lung disease
June 20, 2018 - Simple cognitive task after brain injury improves memory function, study finds
June 20, 2018 - Clinical trial targets metastatic colorectal cancer with new combination therapy
June 20, 2018 - Researchers discover pesticide-free way to limit mosquitoes and reduce spread of West Nile virus
June 20, 2018 - Persistent psychological stress contributes to development and progression of vision loss
June 20, 2018 - Study introduces novel strategy to obtain reasonable drug cost estimates for cost-effectiveness analyses
June 20, 2018 - Does Salt Water Help Your Cut? And Other Health Myths of Summer
June 20, 2018 - Scientists help identify genetic markers for prostate cancer in global DNA download
June 19, 2018 - Common ingredient in toothpaste and hand wash could contribute to antibiotic resistance
June 19, 2018 - WHO launches multiyear campaign to eliminate use of trans fat
June 19, 2018 - Scientists could build better drugs by learning from bacteria-derived molecules
June 19, 2018 - Comparative silence between firing spikes of neurons reveals what they are really up to
June 19, 2018 - JAK inhibitors associated with aggressive lymphoma
June 19, 2018 - SetPoint announces positive long-term results of bioelectronic medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis
June 19, 2018 - Hypnosis may help reduce fear, anxiety in children undergoing treatment for cancer
June 19, 2018 - Scientists point to potentially promising treatment target for deadly brain cancers
June 19, 2018 - After opioid overdose, only 30 percent get medicine to treat addiction
June 19, 2018 - Patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease over age 65 continue to derive benefit from DBS-f treatment
June 19, 2018 - Microbiotica partners with University of Adelaide to develop defined bacterial product for ulcerative colitis
June 19, 2018 - Paratek Presents New Analysis from Combined Phase 3 Skin Infection Studies Highlighting Efficacy of Omadacycline in Treating Drug Resistant S. aureus
June 19, 2018 - Autism is not linked to eating fish in pregnacy
June 19, 2018 - Scientists create universal assembly method to enhance cancer therapy and diagnostics
June 19, 2018 - Follow-up study confirms success of physiological test for autism
June 19, 2018 - FDA provides guidance on Novus Therapeutics’ development path for OP-02 to treat otitis media
June 19, 2018 - Scientists discover new mechanism controlling multiple sclerosis risk
June 19, 2018 - Award granted to Neem Biotech to develop antimicrobial intervention for chronic lung infections
June 19, 2018 - Study finds combined risk of death and developing cancer to be lowest in light drinkers
June 19, 2018 - Novel app teaches users how to stop life-threatening bleeding and save lives
June 19, 2018 - Single blood sample can provide adequate confirmation of diabetes
June 19, 2018 - New stimulation method increases hope for improving disorders of consciousness
June 19, 2018 - FDA Issues Complete Response Letter for Duobrii (halobetasol propionate and tazarotene) Lotion
June 19, 2018 - Defining the biology of autism
June 19, 2018 - Researchers use optogenetics to shape tissues
June 19, 2018 - Scientists discover genetic causes underlying group of related infant cancers
June 19, 2018 - Innovative digital home testing kit benefits patients with kidney conditions
June 19, 2018 - New guidance on selection and evaluation of wearable devices for use in regulatory clinical trials
June 19, 2018 - Researchers understand the role of brain’s ‘reward circuit’ in autism spectrum disorder
June 19, 2018 - Researchers propose new strategy to combat micro-pollutants in water
June 19, 2018 - Illicit Opioid Trade Up With Restrictions on Hydrocodone
June 19, 2018 - New 3-D imaging analysis technique could lead to improved arthritis treatment
June 19, 2018 - Study finds increased risk of mortality in people with cold agglutinin disease in five years after diagnosis
June 19, 2018 - Psychologists can play important role in treating alcohol problems
June 19, 2018 - Study finds elevated risk of congenital defects in lithium-exposed infants
Study finds tobacco smoke exposure among most adolescents in economically disadvantaged population

Study finds tobacco smoke exposure among most adolescents in economically disadvantaged population

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Bottom Line: Ninety-four percent of adolescents ages 13 to 19 in an economically disadvantaged, largely minority population in San Francisco had measurable levels of a biomarker specific for exposure to tobacco smoke (NNAL).

Journal in Which the Study Was Published: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Author: Neal L. Benowitz, MD, professor of Medicine and Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, and chief of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

Background: Benowitz explained that exposure of adolescents to secondhand smoke poses a public health challenge because it increases risk for respiratory infections, aggravates asthma, and is linked to an increased likelihood of becoming an active smoker.

In a prior study, Benowitz and colleagues showed that 87 percent of adolescents in an economically disadvantaged population had evidence of exposure to nicotine, as defined by the presence of cotinine in urine samples.

In this study, they set out to assess tobacco smoke exposure in this population by measuring levels of NNAL in urine samples. Benowitz explained that NNAL is detectable in urine for much longer periods after tobacco exposure compared with cotinine and that it is present only in the urine of people exposed to tobacco. He and his colleagues, therefore, investigated whether NNAL would be a more sensitive biomarker of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with cotinine, more likely to identify adolescents only intermittently exposed.

How the Study Was Conducted and Results: The researchers measured levels of cotinine and NNAL in urine samples from 465 adolescents who received pediatric care at the Children’s Health Center at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. Among these adolescents, 91 percent had public health insurance and 8 percent had no health insurance; 53 percent were Latino, 22 percent African-American, 11 percent Asian, and 3 percent white.

Overall, 94 percent of the adolescents had detectable levels of NNAL, compared with 87 percent for cotinine. Thus, using the NNAL biomarker indicated a higher prevalence of tobacco exposure in this population compared with cotinine.

Using a level of more than 30 ng of cotinine per ml of urine as a biomarker of active smoking, which is consistent with prior research, 12 percent of the adolescents were identified as active smokers. Eighty-two percent of the adolescents were identified as nonsmokers who had been exposed to secondhand smoke because they had detectable levels of NNAL but did not have cotinine levels above 30 ng per ml of urine.

The percentage of individuals who were identified as active smokers was highest among the African-American adolescents, 32 percent. In addition, the level of NNAL in the urine of nonsmokers was highest among African-American nonsmokers, suggesting higher levels of secondhand smoke exposure.

Author Comment: “Now, using the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen NNAL, we find an even higher prevalence of tobacco exposure, which eliminates the possibility that the [prior] result with cotinine was due to consumption of nicotine-containing products such as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, and black tea,” said Benowitz

“Our data show nearly ubiquitous exposure to tobacco smoke in this population of economically disadvantaged adolescents, which highlights the need for new public health initiatives to reduce exposure,” he added. “It also suggests that routine urine screening for NNAL or cotinine, with counseling intervention in those screening positive for exposure, could help address this public health challenge.”

Limitations: According to Benowitz, the main limitations of the study are that it was conducted at a single hospital and that ethnic minorities comprised the majority of the study population, both of which mean the results might not be generalizable to all urban adolescents.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles