Breaking News
August 19, 2018 - Sun Pharma Announces FDA Approval of Cequa (cyclosporine) Ophthalmic Solution to Treat Dry Eye Disease
August 19, 2018 - Researchers examining Parkinson’s resilience
August 19, 2018 - Researchers find mechanism that prepares brain to replicate repeated actions
August 19, 2018 - Those who are emotionally stable when young may remain the most stable as they age
August 19, 2018 - Insight into endocrine cancers and treatment options
August 19, 2018 - HPV Legislation Doesn’t Impact Teen Sexual Behaviors
August 19, 2018 - Exenatide treatment alleviated symptoms of depression in patients
August 19, 2018 - Tufts researchers win grant to study integration of genomic sequencing into neonatal care
August 19, 2018 - Novel finger-prick test can help prevent toxoplasmosis
August 19, 2018 - Cosmetic Procedures Boost Well-Being, Poll Shows
August 19, 2018 - Responsive parenting intervention results in lower BMIs through age three
August 19, 2018 - Anticancer drugs can help plants to battle infection
August 19, 2018 - Sunscreen from bathers releases significant quantities of polluting titanium dioxide into the sea
August 19, 2018 - Case Western Reserve gets three-year grant to enhance food systems in Cleveland neighborhoods
August 19, 2018 - Teenagers can thank their parents’ positive attitude for avoiding obesity
August 19, 2018 - Body mass index positively linked with blood pressure
August 19, 2018 - New tool fills gap in Small Molecules market
August 19, 2018 - Study compares survival outcomes in rural and urban cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials
August 19, 2018 - Researchers develop molecular matrix that delivers healing stem cells to injured elderly muscles
August 19, 2018 - Teva and Regeneron Announce Positive Topline Phase 3 Fasinumab Results in Patients with Chronic Pain from Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip
August 19, 2018 - New study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food and nutrition research
August 19, 2018 - Ology Bioservices wins $8.4 million worth agreement to manufacture anti-Ebola monoclonal antibody
August 19, 2018 - New CRISPR technology may help eliminate mutated gene sequence
August 19, 2018 - “Zombie gene” protects elephants from cancer finds study
August 19, 2018 - Study explores how many American cities protect the rights of employed breastfeeding mothers
August 19, 2018 - FDA Approves Lenvima (lenvatinib) for First-line Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
August 19, 2018 - Pain: Considering Complementary Approaches (eBook)
August 19, 2018 - Autoimmune response drives vision loss in glaucoma
August 19, 2018 - Tandem Diabetes Care introduces t:slim X2 Insulin Pump with Basal-IQ Technology in the US
August 19, 2018 - Innovative platform developed to destroy cancer cells
August 19, 2018 - Lowering pH inside tumor cells can slow down spread of cancer
August 19, 2018 - Biomarker predicts kidney cancer risk years before diagnosis
August 19, 2018 - Consequences of healthcare-associated infections go beyond patients’ physical health
August 19, 2018 - New drug- free, nanotechnology-based method detects and treats oral plaque
August 19, 2018 - Integration of Opioid, Infectious Disease Treatment Needed
August 19, 2018 - How eye disorders may have influenced the work of famous painters
August 18, 2018 - Blood biomarker could help predict kidney cancer up to five years prior to diagnosis
August 18, 2018 - Dartmouth scientists create more sustainable feed for aquaculture
August 18, 2018 - Immigrants Not a Burden on U.S. Health Care: Study
August 18, 2018 - Women who eat fast food take longer to become pregnant
August 18, 2018 - Most YouTube videos on plastic surgery are misleading marketing campaigns
August 18, 2018 - The essential guide to make your laboratory more sustainable
August 18, 2018 - Loyola Medicine offers scalp cooling treatment to reduce risk of chemotherapy hair loss
August 18, 2018 - Researchers describe promising strategy to remove melanoma’s most powerful defenses
August 18, 2018 - Women with polycystic ovary syndrome dissatisfied with medical care
August 18, 2018 - Research discoveries reveal insights behind neurological degeneration
August 18, 2018 - Researchers win multi-million Euro award to conduct research into liver disease
August 18, 2018 - Survey highlights variations in practice of airway management in pediatric intensive care units
August 18, 2018 - UK students win sponsorship from Promega Corporation
August 18, 2018 - Janssen Reports Positive Topline Results for ATLAS Phase III Study of a Novel, Long Acting Injectable Two-Drug Regimen for the treatment of HIV-1
August 18, 2018 - PSD as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity
August 18, 2018 - Improved visual communication could help patients to make informed health-care decisions
August 18, 2018 - New algorithm helps identify and manage diabetic patients at increased fracture risk
August 18, 2018 - Microscopic insect odour detecting mechanisms discovered
August 18, 2018 - Researchers develop new approach to study how tuberculosis infects people
August 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Kalydeco (ivacaftor) for Cystic Fibrosis in Children Ages 12 to
August 18, 2018 - An ion channel differentiates newborn and mature neurons in the adult brain
August 18, 2018 - Conditions of first sexual encounter can be indicators of future HIV risk and gender-based violence
August 18, 2018 - Socio-economic position associated with pregnant women’s exposure to environmental hazards
August 18, 2018 - Study evaluates how students change their breakfast consumption when given extra time
August 18, 2018 - Chronic perinatal hypoxia linked to locomotor miscoordination, long-term cerebellar learning deficits
August 18, 2018 - Voters to settle dispute over ambulance employee break times
August 18, 2018 - AGA urges policymakers and stakeholders to improve affordability of drugs
August 18, 2018 - Increasing dietary protein may lower risk of diabetes in people with NAFLD
August 18, 2018 - New HIV therapy suppresses viral replication and increases immune cells in drug-resistant patients
August 18, 2018 - Broad Genetic Testing for NSCLC May Not Improve Survival
August 18, 2018 - Discovery opens door for synthetic opioids with less addictive qualities
August 18, 2018 - Transgenic rice plant extracts could help stop the spread of HIV
August 18, 2018 - Hologic’s Cynosure division partners with Porter Instrument to distribute nitrous oxide and oxygen system
August 18, 2018 - Two thyroid medications recalled by FDA
August 18, 2018 - Forecast Sees Abnormal Heat Worldwide Through 2022
August 18, 2018 - Childhood absence epilepsy – Genetics Home Reference
August 18, 2018 - Fearing hard Brexit, UK drugmakers stockpile to protect lives
August 18, 2018 - Discovery may help broaden the scope of defenses against HPV
August 18, 2018 - When they start thinking green, they see green
August 18, 2018 - Scientists introduce microfluidics-based chip for manipulation and analysis of single cells
August 18, 2018 - Researchers design new way to grow nose cells for treating spinal cord injuries
August 18, 2018 - New light shed on relationship between calorie-burning fat and muscle function
August 18, 2018 - Surgery Saturday Instagram series takes you inside Stanford’s OR
August 18, 2018 - Researchers uncover surprising new role for inhibition in the cerebellum
Opioid overdoses are rising faster among Latinos than whites or blacks. Why?

Opioid overdoses are rising faster among Latinos than whites or blacks. Why?

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

“I’m a serious addict,” said Julio Cesar Santiago, 44. “I still have dreams where I’m about to use drugs, and I have to wake up and get on my knees and pray, ‘Let God take this away from me,’ because I don’t want to go back. I know that if I go back out there, I’m done.”

Santiago has reason to worry. Data on opioid addiction in his home state of Massachusetts show the overdose death rate for Latinos there has doubled in three years, growing at twice the rates of non-Hispanic whites and blacks.

Opioid overdose deaths among Latinos are surging nationwide as well. While the overall death toll is still higher for whites, it’s increasing faster for Latinos and blacks, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Latino fatalities increased 52.5 percent from 2014 to 2016, compared with 45.8 percent for whites. (Statisticians say Hispanic overdose counts are typically underestimated.) The most substantial hike was among blacks: 83.9 percent.

The data portray a changing face of the opioid epidemic.

“What we thought initially, that this was a problem among non-Hispanic whites, is not quite accurate,” said Robert Anderson, mortality statistics branch chief at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. “If you go back into the data, you can see the increases over time in all of these groups, but we tended to focus on the non-Hispanic whites because the rates were so much higher.”

There’s little understanding about why overdose deaths are rising faster among blacks and Latinos than whites. Some physicians and outreach workers suspect the infiltration of fentanyl into cocaine is driving up fatalities among blacks.

The picture of what’s happening among Latinos has been murky, but interviews with nearly two dozen current and former drug users and their family members, addiction treatment providers and physicians reveal that language and cultural barriers, even fear of deportation, could limit the access of Latinos to lifesaving treatment.

Bilingual Treatment Options Are Scarce

Irma Bermudez, 43, describes herself as a “grateful recovering addict.” She’s living in the women’s residential unit at Casa Esperanza, a collection of day treatment, residential programs and transitional housing in Boston’s Roxbury neighborhood.

Bermudez said the language barrier keeps anyone who can’t read English out of treatment from the start, as they try to decipher websites or brochures that advertise options. If they call a number on the screen or walk into an office, “there’s no translation — we’re not going to get nothing out of it,” Bermudez said.

Some of the Latinos interviewed for this story described sitting through group counseling sessions, part of virtually every treatment program, and not being able to follow much, if any, of the conversation. They recalled waiting for a translator to arrive for their individual appointment with a doctor or counselor and missing the session when the translator is late or doesn’t show up at all.

SAMHSA, the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, maintains a Find Treatment website that includes listings of treatment offered in Spanish. But several Massachusetts providers listed there could not say how many translators they have or when they are available. The SAMHSA site is available only in English, with Spanish-language translators available only by phone.

At Casa Esperanza, 100 men are waiting for a spot in the male residential program, so recovery coach Richard Lopez spends a lot of time on the phone trying to get clients into a program he thinks has at least one translator.

After battling with voicemail, said Lopez, he’ll eventually get a call back; the agent typically offers to put Lopez’s client on another waiting list. That frustrates him.

“You’re telling me that this person has to wait two to three months? I’m trying to save this person today,” he said. “What am I going to do, bring these individuals to my house and handcuff them so they don’t do nothing?”

Casa Esperanza Executive Director Emily Stewart said Massachusetts needs a public information campaign via Spanish-language media that explains treatment options. She’d like that to include medication-assisted treatment, which she said is not well understood.

Some research shows Latino drug users are less likely than others to have access to or use the addiction treatment medicines, methadone and buprenorphine. One study shows that may be shifting. But, Latinos with experience in the field said, access to buprenorphine (which is also known by the brand name Suboxone) is limited because there are few Spanish-speaking doctors who prescribe it.

A Matter Of Machismo: ‘It’s Not Cool To Call 911’

Lopez has close ties these days with health care providers, the police and EMT rescue squads. But that has changed dramatically from when he was using heroin. On the streets, he said, “it’s not cool to be calling 911” when a person sees someone overdose. “I could get shot, and I won’t call 911.”

It’s a machismo thing, said Lopez.

“To the men in the house, the word ‘help’ sounds, like, degrading, you know?” he said. Calling 911 “is like you’re getting exiled from your community.”

Santiago said not everyone feels that way. A few men called EMTs to help revive him. “I wouldn’t be here today if it wasn’t for them,” he said.

But Santiago and others say there’s growing fear among Latinos they know of asking anyone perceived as a government agent for help — especially if the person who needs the help is not a U.S. citizen.

“They fear if they get involved they’re going to get deported,” said Felito Diaz, 41.

Bermudez said Latina women have their own reasons to worry about calling 911 if a boyfriend or husband has stopped breathing.

“If they are in a relationship and trying to protect someone, they might hesitate as well,” said Bermudez, if the man would face arrest and possible jail time.

A Tight Social Network

Another reason some Latino drug users said they’ve been hit especially hard by this epidemic: A 2017 DEA report on drug trafficking noted that Mexican cartels control much of the illegal drug distribution in the United States, selling the drugs through a network of local gangs and small-scale dealers.

In the Northeast, Dominican drug dealers tend to predominate.

“The Latinos are the ones bringing in the drugs here,” said Rafael, a man who uses heroin and lives on the street in Boston, close to Casa Esperanza. “The Latinos are getting their hands in it, and they’re liking it.”

Kaiser Health News and NPR agreed not to use Rafael’s last name because he uses illegal drugs.

Some Spanish-speaking drug users in the Boston area said they get discounts on the first, most potent cut. Social connection matters, they said.

“Of course, I would feel more comfortable selling to a Latino if I was a drug dealer than a Caucasian or any other, because I know how to relate and get that money off them,” said Lopez.

The social networks of drug use create another layer of challenges for some Latinos, said Dr. Chinazo Cunningham, who treats many patients from Puerto Rico. She primarily works at a clinic affiliated with the Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, in New York City.

“The family is such an important unit — it’s difficult, if there is substance use within the family, for people to stop using opioids,” Cunningham said.

The Burden Of Poverty

Though Latinos are hardly a uniform community, many face an additional risk factor for addiction: poverty. About 20 percent of the community live in poverty, compared with 9 percent of whites, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. (Kaiser Health News is an editorially independent program of the foundation.)

In Massachusetts, four times as many Latinos live below the poverty line as do whites. The majority of Casa Esperanza clients were recently homeless. The wait time for one of the agency’s 37 individual or family housing units ranges from a year to a decade.

“If you’ve done all the work of getting somebody stabilized and then they leave and don’t have a stable place to go, you’re right back where you started,” said Casa Esperanza’s Stewart.

Cunningham said the Latino community has been dealing with opioid addiction for decades and it is one reason for the group’s relatively high incarceration rate. In Massachusetts, Latinos are sentenced to prison at nearly five times the rate of whites.

“It’s great that we’re now talking about it because the opioid epidemic is affecting other populations,” Cunningham said. “It’s a little bit bittersweet that this hasn’t been addressed years before. But it’s good that we’re talking about treatment rather than incarceration, and that this is a medical illness rather than a moral shortcoming.”

Nationally, says the CDC’s Anderson, there’s no sign that the surge of overdose deaths is abating in any population.

“We’ve already had two years of declining life expectancy in the U.S., and I think that when we see the 2017 data we’ll see a third year,” said Anderson. “That hasn’t happened since the great influenza pandemic in the early 1900s.”

The fatality counts for 2017 are expected out by the end of this year.

This story is part of a partnership that includes WBUR, NPR and Kaiser Health News.

Kaiser Health NewsThis article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles