Breaking News
December 19, 2018 - UI study leads to better understanding of signaling capacity between neurons
December 19, 2018 - Gut microbiome plays role in immune system regulation, study finds
December 19, 2018 - How MAPK translocation leads to drug resistance in melanoma
December 19, 2018 - Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. linked with occasional use
December 19, 2018 - Mind-body exercises may improve cognition in older adults
December 19, 2018 - Hepatitis C drug can eliminate chikungunya, yellow fever virus
December 19, 2018 - Separating male and female mice changes the way they smell, shows study
December 19, 2018 - FDA Approves Genentech’s Tecentriq in Combination With Avastin and Chemotherapy for the Initial Treatment of Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
December 19, 2018 - Mediterranean Diet for Osteoarthritis | About OA
December 19, 2018 - Successful bladder repair using silk fibroid scaffolds
December 19, 2018 - Quidel receives CE mark to use Sofia 2 Lyme+ Fluorescent Immunoassay with Sofia 2 analyzer
December 19, 2018 - Horizon Discovery partners with C4XD to validate novel synthetic lethal oncology targets
December 19, 2018 - Research suggests a promising therapeutic target to treat or prevent metabolic disorders
December 19, 2018 - Split liver transplants could save children on wait list finds study
December 19, 2018 - Michigan-based food manufacturer ordered to discontinue operations after recurrent food safety violations
December 19, 2018 - Real-time neurofeedback controls Parkinson’s brainwaves
December 19, 2018 - Incorrect prescribing warnings in electronic prescribing systems
December 19, 2018 - New $1.6 million NIH grant supports study on a gene vital to circadian rhythms
December 19, 2018 - Racial Disparities Seen Among Teens Undergoing Flu Vaccination
December 19, 2018 - To resolve inflammation, location matters
December 19, 2018 - Dancing could help older women to perform their daily tasks
December 19, 2018 - Research identifies new therapeutic target for cancer treatment and tissue regeneration
December 19, 2018 - Energy costs, social isolation contribute to health risk of older adults in extreme weather
December 19, 2018 - Potential combination therapy against rare disease of the bone marrow could improve treatment
December 19, 2018 - Researchers aim to improve cognition, reverse weight gain in schizophrenia
December 19, 2018 - UC San Diego Health offers new DRG stimulation device for phantom limb pain
December 19, 2018 - Study examines relationship between growth restriction and risk of childhood mortality
December 19, 2018 - New study provides insights on increased risk of suicide in young patients visiting ED
December 19, 2018 - AHA: Thyroid Problems Linked to Worsening Heart Failure
December 19, 2018 - World-first coeliac disease vaccine enters Phase 2 trials
December 19, 2018 - RNA sequencing offers novel insights into the microbiome
December 19, 2018 - A promising, effective vaccine for common respiratory disease
December 19, 2018 - Protein may slow progression of emphysema, study finds
December 19, 2018 - Studying atrial fibrillation — and exploring new frontiers in precision health
December 19, 2018 - A New Way To Get College Students Through A Psychiatric Crisis — And Back To School
December 19, 2018 - Optum, UnitedHealthcare take action to help people affected by North Carolina winter storms
December 18, 2018 - Weight change in middle-aged, elderly Chinese Singaporeans related to increased risk of death
December 18, 2018 - Immune cells sacrifice themselves to protect us from invading bacteria
December 18, 2018 - Watching brain cells fire, with a twist of gravitational waves
December 18, 2018 - 2018 in Review
December 18, 2018 - Getting the Most Out of the CLARITY Technique
December 18, 2018 - NVF shoes provide a viable option for track and road racing
December 18, 2018 - CRISPR may restore effectiveness of chemotherapies used to treat lung cancer
December 18, 2018 - New app accurately measures and charts progression of skin wounds
December 18, 2018 - Persistent Discrimination ID’d Among Physician Mothers
December 18, 2018 - Cellphone technology developed to detect HIV
December 18, 2018 - A Stanford doctor hits the field with the 49ers — as their airway management physician
December 18, 2018 - The Rise of Anxiety Baking
December 18, 2018 - Just one night of sleep deprivation increases the urge to eat
December 18, 2018 - Study reveals mechanism behind failed remyelination in MS
December 18, 2018 - New genetic testing method increases the precision of biomarker analysis
December 18, 2018 - Simple technique to effectively treat underdiagnosed cause of debilitating chest pain
December 18, 2018 - Barbershop-based medical intervention can successfully lower blood pressure, new data shows
December 18, 2018 - Food labels have caused changes in consumers’ intake and industry’s use of key additives
December 18, 2018 - Sickest children could benefit from split liver transplants
December 18, 2018 - Scientists create patient-specific model to identify most effective treatment for appendix cancer
December 18, 2018 - ‘Little Foot’ endocast reveals a small brain combining ape-like and human-like features
December 18, 2018 - New therapy for childhood blindness shows ‘very promising’ results
December 18, 2018 - Researchers discover promising new compound against Buruli ulcer
December 18, 2018 - Study finds significant use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa
December 18, 2018 - California Farm Implicated in Outbreak of E. coli Tied to Romaine Lettuce
December 18, 2018 - Mobile health has power to transform HIV/AIDS nursing
December 18, 2018 - Celiac Vaccine in Clinical Trials at Columbia
December 18, 2018 - Research into mental health first aid prompts practical guidance and resources for workplace
December 18, 2018 - Researcher conducts study to investigate peripheral blood markers of Alzheimer’s disease
December 18, 2018 - Researchers identify link between mucus in the small airways and pulmonary fibrosis
December 18, 2018 - EU Commission’s Health Policy Platform to host EKHA program on transplantation
December 18, 2018 - Survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma have high risk of developing solid tumors
December 18, 2018 - Small changes to cafeteria design can get kids to eat healthier, new assessment tool finds
December 18, 2018 - From Machines to Cyclic Compounds
December 18, 2018 - New study reveals best assessment tools to establish delirium severity
December 18, 2018 - Rice University scientists develop synthetic protein switches to control electron flow
December 18, 2018 - Home-based pulmonary function monitoring for teens with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
December 18, 2018 - Researchers identify potential target for new breast cancer treatments
December 18, 2018 - National Biofilms Innovation Centre award grant to Neem Biotech for novel anti-biofilm drug development
December 18, 2018 - Artificial intelligence and the future of medicine
December 18, 2018 - Montana State doctoral student receives grant for her work to improve neuroscience tool
December 18, 2018 - Early postpartum initiation of opioids associated with persistent use
December 18, 2018 - Russian scientists identify molecular ‘switch’ that could be target for treatment of allergic asthma
December 18, 2018 - Surgeons make more mistakes in the operating room during stressful moments, shows study
Research identifies new genetic variations that could indicate higher prostate cancer risk

Research identifies new genetic variations that could indicate higher prostate cancer risk

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

As the result of a six-year long research process, Fredrick R. Schumacher, PhD, a cancer epidemiology researcher at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and an international team of more than 100 colleagues have identified 63 new genetic variations that could indicate higher risk of prostate cancer in men of European descent. The findings, published in a research letter in Nature Genetics, contain significant implications for which men may need to be regularly screened because of higher genetic risk of prostate cancer. The new findings also represent the largest increase in genetic markers for prostate cancer since they were first identified in 2006.

The changes, known as genetic markers or SNPs (“snips”), occur when a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. There are four types of bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The order of these bases determines DNA’s instructions, or genetic code. They can serve as a flag to physicians that a person may be at higher risk for a certain disease. Previously, about 100 SNPs were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. There are three billion base pairs in the human genome; of these, 163 have now been associated with prostate cancer.

One in seven men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetimes.

“Our findings will allow us to identify which men should have early and regular PSA screenings and these findings may eventually inform treatment decisions,” said Schumacher. PSA is a blood test used to screen for prostate cancer. It measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous tissue in the prostate.

Adding the 63 new SNPs to the 100 that are already known allows for the creation of a genetic risk score for prostate cancer. In the new study, the researchers found that men in the top one percent of the genetic risk score had a six-fold risk-increase of prostate cancer compared to men with an average genetic risk score. Those who had the fewest number of these SNPs, or a low genetic risk score, had the lowest likelihood of having prostate cancer.

In a meta-analysis that combined both previous and new research data, Schumacher, with colleagues from Europe and Australia, examined DNA sequences of about 80,000 men with prostate cancer and about 60,000 men who didn’t have the disease. They found that men with cancer had a higher frequency of 63 different SNPs (also known as single nucleotide polymorphisms) that men without the disease did not have. Additionally, the more of these SNPs that a man has, the more likely he is to develop prostate cancer.

The researchers estimate that there are about 500-1,000 genetic variants possibly linked to prostate cancer, not all of which have yet been identified. “We probably only need to know ten percent to twenty percent of these to provide relevant screening guidelines,” continued Schumacher, who is an associate professor in the Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences at CWRU.

Currently, researchers don’t know which of the SNPs are the most predictive of increased prostate cancer risk. Schumacher and a number of colleagues are working to rank those most likely to be linked with prostate cancer, especially with aggressive forms of the disease that require surgery, as opposed to slowly developing versions that call for “watchful waiting” and monitoring.

The research lays a foundation for determining who and how often men should undergo PSA tests. “In the future, your genetic risk score may be highly indicative of your prostate cancer risk, which will determine the intensity of PSA screening,” said Schumacher. “We will be working to determine that precise genetic risk score range that would trigger testing. Additionally, if you have a low score, you may need screening less frequently such as every 2-5 years.” A further implication of the findings of the new study is the possibility of precise treatments that do not involve surgery. “Someday it may be feasible to target treatments based on a patient’s prostate cancer genetic risk score,” said Schumacher.

In addition to the work in the new study, which as noted, targets men of European background, there are parallel efforts underway looking at genetic signals of prostate cancer in men of African American and Asian descent.

Source:

http://casemed.case.edu/cwrumed360/news-releases/release.cfm?news_id=1297&news_category=8

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles