Breaking News
November 21, 2018 - Smoke-free laws associated with reduced systolic blood pressure
November 21, 2018 - Achieving new guideline blood pressure goals may prevent 3 million cardiovascular events
November 21, 2018 - LDR brachytherapy for treating early-stage prostate cancer lacks conclusive data
November 21, 2018 - Purified omega-3 and aspirin reduce pre-cancerous bowel polyps, shows study
November 21, 2018 - Study warns that potential epigenetic therapy may boost lung cancer stem cells
November 21, 2018 - Noise pollution in hospital impact quality and safety of healthcare
November 21, 2018 - Higher Risk for Amputation, DKA With SGLT2 Inhibitors for T2DM
November 21, 2018 - Researchers stop ‘sneaky’ cancer cells in their tracks
November 21, 2018 - People who are afraid to draw their blood over-estimate the risk of fainting
November 21, 2018 - Personalized physical exercise reverses functional, cognitive deterioration in the elderly
November 21, 2018 - COPD linked to obesity in older women who have never smoked
November 21, 2018 - AHA: Cold-Weather Drinks Are Here, But Watch Out for the Calories
November 21, 2018 - Crowds line up at 1st East Coast pot shops
November 21, 2018 - Merck declares 2018 Life Science Award winners
November 21, 2018 - Many people underestimate the impact of sprains, say foot scientists
November 21, 2018 - Lower levels of protein make squamous carcinoma cells more invasive
November 21, 2018 - Study highlights a new predictor of type 2 diabetes
November 21, 2018 - NTU and TTSH join forces to improve doctor-patient communication
November 21, 2018 - New low-cost injectable hydrogel could help wounds heal faster
November 21, 2018 - Merck Announces Winners of 2018 Life Science Awards
November 21, 2018 - Check your medical records for dangerous errors
November 21, 2018 - Amount of weight regain after bariatric surgery helps predict health risks
November 21, 2018 - Heart failure patients with stronger hearts have more depressive symptoms, lower quality of life
November 21, 2018 - Women can be as resilient as men in undertaking arduous physical activity
November 21, 2018 - Receptor structure could be key to developing new osteoporosis drugs
November 21, 2018 - Researchers identify human white matter pathway associated with individual variability in human stereoacuity
November 21, 2018 - Vitamin D critical to early development of vertebrates, study suggests
November 21, 2018 - Myriad biological, societal factors that impact CKD severity for children of African descent
November 21, 2018 - Isofol Announces Initiation of a Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trial of arfolitixorin for the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
November 21, 2018 - Experts offer more clarity on managing common ankle fractures
November 21, 2018 - About 300 million bits of DNA are missing from basic reference genome, report scientists
November 21, 2018 - Study explores how the moving brain processes visual information
November 21, 2018 - Biomedical engineers stop cancer cells from moving and spreading
November 21, 2018 - Gut protein mutations protect against spikes in blood glucose levels
November 21, 2018 - First probabilistic atlas of thalamus nuclei to better understand the brain
November 21, 2018 - Peanut allergies could soon have a drug treatment
November 21, 2018 - Vanderbilt researchers isolate antibody that can neutralize West Nile virus
November 21, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Health nerd books for the holidays
November 21, 2018 - MDMA could help gain trust but does not make one naive find researchers
November 21, 2018 - Study uncovers new mechanism controlling the master cancer regulator
November 21, 2018 - Online communication technologies could stave off depression among seniors, shows study
November 21, 2018 - FDA Approves Gamifant (emapalumab-lzsg) for Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
November 21, 2018 - Artificial intelligence predicts treatment effectiveness
November 21, 2018 - A bicyclist’s road to recovery after traumatic brain injury
November 21, 2018 - New research project to combat obesity, type 2 diabetes receives NIH funding
November 21, 2018 - Humans play key role in distribution and transmission of Bartonella bacteria
November 21, 2018 - First modeling system developed for testing age-specific human immune responses to vaccines
November 21, 2018 - FDA Alert: Gilenya (fingolimod): Drug Safety Communication
November 21, 2018 - Uric Acid Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 21, 2018 - Researchers use genetics to predict response to antipsychotic medications
November 21, 2018 - Proposal to include the price of drugs in television ads is flawed, Stanford scholar writes
November 21, 2018 - Disrupting reproduction strategy of disease-causing parasites could help fight malaria
November 20, 2018 - ACAAI: Almost 2 Percent of Children Have Milk Allergy
November 20, 2018 - Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract – Genetics Home Reference
November 20, 2018 - Can video games improve the health of older adults with schizophrenia?
November 20, 2018 - Can flicking a molecular switch restore the aging immune system’s competence?
November 20, 2018 - Restek launches new Oregon cannabis pesticide standards
November 20, 2018 - Health sector coalition urges Government to safeguard patients in future UK-EU relationship
November 20, 2018 - Study evaluates second-hand marijuana smoke exposure among children
November 20, 2018 - Scientists identify three genes responsible for recurrent molar pregnancies
November 20, 2018 - Researchers identify multisystem disorder caused by bi-allelic variants in CCDC47 gene
November 20, 2018 - Dining Out With Allergies Is Tough, But These Steps Can Help
November 20, 2018 - Breastfeeding protects infants from antibiotic-resistant bacteria
November 20, 2018 - AI matched, outperformed radiologists in screening X-rays for certain diseases | News Center
November 20, 2018 - Adolescents increasingly choose marijuana over cigarettes, alcohol
November 20, 2018 - World’s first medical imaging scanner produces diagnostic scan of the whole human body
November 20, 2018 - Cytocybernetics receives NIMH award to move into neuronal drug development
November 20, 2018 - Researchers discover new information on pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease
November 20, 2018 - ‘Unknown’ enzyme may be key to new treatment for inflammatory diseases
November 20, 2018 - Recreational drug may help people regain trust in others
November 20, 2018 - Researchers identify gene vital for post-stroke recovery
November 20, 2018 - Scientists identify novel target for neuron regeneration, functional recovery in spinal cord injury
November 20, 2018 - Potential new therapeutic approach developed for synovial sarcoma
November 20, 2018 - Skeletal imitation reveals how bones grow atom-by-atom
November 20, 2018 - Autism behaviors show unique brain network fingerprints in infants
November 20, 2018 - Location matters for inflammation clearance
November 20, 2018 - Towards finding a druggable cancer target
November 20, 2018 - Ultragenyx Announces Intent to Submit New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for UX007 for the Treatment of Long-chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders in Mid-2019
November 20, 2018 - Cooling ‘brains on fire’ to treat Parkinson’s
November 20, 2018 - Less pollution could increase the average lifespan of Copenhageners by an entire year in 2040
Engineers create first 3D computer model to show breast duct development

Engineers create first 3D computer model to show breast duct development

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Working with hundreds of time-lapse videos of mouse tissue, a team of biologists joined up with civil engineers to create what is believed to be the first 3D computer model to show precisely how the tiny tubes that funnel milk through the breasts of mammals form.

A report on the model was published April 9 in Developmental Cell. The model employed science and engineering principles commonly used to predict the forces at work on bridges and buildings and “miniaturize” them to use on cells.

Understanding how such ducts form, the team says, may lend insight into how diseases such as metastatic breast cancers spread throughout the body.

“We learned from this study that cancers would not need to ‘invent’ cell migration, but only reactivate dormant but normal duct migration programs in the wrong place and wrong time,” says Andrew Ewald, Ph.D., professor of cell biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a researcher at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. Ewald emphasizes that the computer model was created through observations of mouse tissue grown in the laboratory, but because mammalian biology is so highly conserved across species, the same processes are likely applicable to most or all mammals.

Ewald’s lab worked with a research team from the University of Waterloo in Canada led by Wayne Brodland, to build the model. The team compared how migrating cells interact with their neighbors and organize into “scaffolding,” to the systems of beams that support man-made structures.

“This was an interesting structural engineering problem to solve,” says Matthew Perrone, a civil engineering master’s student at the Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering. “In addition to determining the forces acting within a finished duct that hold it together, we had to compute the forces that allow it to support itself while still developing.”

As the mouse mammary tissues grew breast milk ducts, the research team measured the angles between one cell border and the next and used this info to calculate the relative strength and direction of forces acting on the cells in these tissues.

These cellular scaffolds look similar to a basketball net, says Ewald.

“Imagine an invisible hand pulling on the net, in which the angles between all of the links change such that you can predict where the hand is and what it’s doing,” he says.

These angles change as a cell moves through a tissue, a process incited by chemical gradients within the cell. Using fluorescent molecules to mark these chemicals, the research team found the signaling proteins RAS, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and F-actin concentrate in the front of the cell and watched as these signals prompted the cell to change from a typical shapeless epithelial cell into a unique teardrop shape as they begin to move.

“After seeing this occur hundreds of times, we knew that shape must be important for the biology and the mechanics of the system,” says Neil Neumann, lead author on the study and an M.D./Ph.D. candidate at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

That shape, the researchers found, was a result of a pulling force at the front of the cell and a pushing force at the back – the same forces at work in single cells moving outside of tissues.

“Almost all of cell migration research over the past 50 years has been based on single cells that have been removed from a normal context and placed on a rigid surface such as a petri dish,” says Ewald. “Our results reassure us that our understanding of the forces at work on a simple system like a single cell can be applied to more complex environments.”

However, Ewald says, a major difference between a cell moving in isolation and one moving through complex living tissue is that for the latter, the cell needs to break and form connections with their neighbors in order to move to their destination.

Ewald’s team saw that the cells at the front of the elongating duct replicate to create layer after layer of daughter cells directly below them, like a ball slowly filling in from the outside. To elongate the duct, the cells from the lower layers begin to crawl their way up to the surface, expanding the surface area and the length of the duct.

With all of this information coded in, the initial model was still incomplete, creating structures that sprawled out in all directions, rather than growing directionally into a long, linear tube typical of healthy mammary ducts. “This failure told us that for normal tubes to form, we needed to be some other force at the edge of tubes,” Ewald says. Ultimately, the researchers found that the stationary cells in the tissue created fibers that fortify the cell’s shape. When the forces created by these fibers were added to the model, the tubes finally elongated.

“It is similar to blowing up a balloon inside of a paper tube. The rigid outer layer directs the expansion,” says Ewald.

The researchers say the computer model should enable more multidisciplinary studies showing how cells migrate in healthy organs and provide insight into how diseased cells, such as cancers, may use these processes to spread.

“An exciting part of this interdisciplinary work is that each side of the project informed and enhanced the work of the other,” says Neumann. “The experiments that we performed improved the computer model, and the results from the model gave us new insights into how the biology worked.”

Source:

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/3d_imaging_and_computer_modeling_capture_breast_duct_development

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles