Breaking News
February 23, 2019 - Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may improve by identifying a protein
February 23, 2019 - The American Heart Association issues new reference toolkit for healthcare providers
February 23, 2019 - Studies explore physiological dangers that climate change will have on animal life
February 23, 2019 - Penn study reveals increase in health-related internet searches before ER visits
February 23, 2019 - Intensive therapy during early stages of MS leads to better long-term outcomes
February 23, 2019 - Prenatal Fluconazole Exposure Increases Neonatal Risks
February 23, 2019 - Mental Health Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
February 23, 2019 - Study suggests birth mechanics are part of the process that leads to autism
February 23, 2019 - Unhealthy diet linked to poor mental health
February 23, 2019 - Study gives a snapshot of crocodile evolution
February 23, 2019 - Research finds steep rise in self-poisonings among young people
February 23, 2019 - American Gastroenterological Association announces “AGA Future Leaders Program”
February 23, 2019 - Scientists uncover new mechanisms regulating neural stem cells
February 23, 2019 - Combinations of certain insecticides turn out to be lethal for honeybees
February 23, 2019 - AHA News: Why Are Black Women at Higher Risk of Dying From Pregnancy Complications?
February 23, 2019 - NIMH » Anxiety Disorders
February 23, 2019 - Autistic people urgently need access to tailored mental health support
February 23, 2019 - Newly designed molecule could benefit people with Friedrich’s Ataxia
February 23, 2019 - Chinese CRISPR twins may have better cognition and memory
February 23, 2019 - Study finds new genetic clues associated with asthma in African ancestry populations
February 23, 2019 - Fetal signaling pathways may offer future opportunities to treat lung damage
February 23, 2019 - Early-stage osteoarthritis drug wins prestigious innovation award
February 23, 2019 - Researchers report positive findings with dasotraline for ADHD in children ages 6-12
February 23, 2019 - News study reanalyzes the effects of noncaloric sweeteners on gut microbiota
February 23, 2019 - New device allows scientists to reproduce blow effects on the heart in lab
February 23, 2019 - Holy herb identified as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease
February 23, 2019 - New technology platform digitally counts growth factors in single cells
February 23, 2019 - Surgery and other treatments offer viable options for adult scoliosis
February 23, 2019 - Reduced antibody adaptability may make the elderly more vulnerable to influenza
February 23, 2019 - Researchers find increased rates of CRC screening in Kentucky after Medicaid expansion
February 23, 2019 - Neighborhood income, education associated with risk of disability progression in MS patients
February 23, 2019 - Endocrine Society opposes new rule that restricts access to Title X Family Planning Program
February 23, 2019 - 2019 guidelines for management of patients with atrial fibrillation
February 23, 2019 - Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment for joint inflammation
February 23, 2019 - A just-right fix for a tiny heart
February 23, 2019 - UMass Amherst scientist explores role of citrus peel in decreasing gut inflammation
February 23, 2019 - Owlstone Medical and Shanghai Renji Hospital collaborate to initiate breath biopsy lung cancer trial
February 23, 2019 - AMSBIO’s comprehensive portfolio of knock-out cell lines and lysates
February 23, 2019 - New app reliably determines physicians’ skills in forming accurate, efficient diagnoses
February 23, 2019 - Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study
February 23, 2019 - Researchers uncover mechanisms that prevent tooth replacement in mice
February 23, 2019 - Once-a-day capsule offers new way to reduce symptoms of chronic breathlessness
February 23, 2019 - FDA Adds Boxed Warning for Increased Risk of Death with Gout Medicine Uloric (febuxostat)
February 23, 2019 - Phone-based intervention aids rheumatoid arthritis care
February 23, 2019 - Opioid epidemic makes eastern inroads and targets African-Americans
February 23, 2019 - New identified biomarker predicts patients who might benefit from HER2-targeted agents
February 23, 2019 - Study offers new insights into mechanisms of changes in erythrocytes under stress
February 23, 2019 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be beneficial for schizophrenia patients
February 23, 2019 - Researchers investigate how marijuana and tobacco co-use affects quit attempts by smokers
February 23, 2019 - Patients with diabetes mellitus have high risk of stable ischemic heart disease
February 23, 2019 - Transparency on healthcare prices played key role in Arizona health system’s turnaround
February 23, 2019 - A comprehensive, multinational review of peppers around the world
February 23, 2019 - Study finds modest decrease in burnout among physicians
February 23, 2019 - A simple change can drastically reduce unnecessary tests for urinary tract infections
February 23, 2019 - Deep Learning-Enhanced Device Detects Diabetic Retinopathy
February 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new binding partner for amyloid precursor protein
February 23, 2019 - Modest decrease seen in burnout among physicians, researchers say | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Transplanting bone marrow of young mice into old mice prevents cognitive decline
February 23, 2019 - Mogrify to accelerate novel IP and cell therapies using $3.7m USD funding
February 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study describes cells that may help speed bone repair
February 23, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate influence of food odors on proteostasis
February 23, 2019 - Researchers unlock the secret behind reproduction of fish called ‘Mary’
February 23, 2019 - Acupuncture Could Help Ease Menopausal Symptoms
February 23, 2019 - Researchers use AI to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s
February 23, 2019 - On recovery, vulnerability and ritual: An exhibit in white | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Memory Stored in Unexpected Region of the Brain
February 23, 2019 - Several health experts worldwide gather at EUDONORGAN event
February 23, 2019 - Discovery of potent compound in native California shrub may lead to treatment for Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Researchers create new map of the brain’s own immune system
February 22, 2019 - ICHE’s reviews on surgical infections, unnecessary urine tests, and nurses’ role in antibiotic stewardship
February 22, 2019 - UK Research and Innovation invests £200 million to create new generation of AI leaders
February 22, 2019 - Takeda collaboration to boost fight against Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
February 22, 2019 - Heavy drinking may change DNA, leading to increased craving for alcohol
February 22, 2019 - U.S. opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states | News Center
February 22, 2019 - 5 Questions with William Turner on Diversity in Medicine
February 22, 2019 - HHS Finalizes Rule Seeking To Expel Planned Parenthood From Family Planning Program
February 22, 2019 - Researchers uncover biochemical pathway that may help identify drugs to treat Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Biologist uses new grant to find ways to eliminate schistosomiasis
February 22, 2019 - Bag-mask ventilation to help patients breathe during intubation prevents complications
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
Scientists find two molecules that may combat cancer and chronic infections

Scientists find two molecules that may combat cancer and chronic infections

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

To fight viral infections, your immune system calls on CD8 T cells to kill the infected cells. The CD8 T cells can also be used in immunotherapy approaches to kill cancer cells, including the CAR T cell therapy currently attracting broad public attention.

“The problem is that CD8 T cells are often exhausted in cancer and chronic infections like HIV, so they die off or stop functioning properly,” said Shomyseh Sanjabi, PhD, an assistant investigator at the Gladstone Institutes who has been studying this cell type for nearly 15 years. “I’ve been trying to better understand how these cells develop in order to find ways to help them regain their function and live longer.”

When you initially get exposed to an invading pathogen, such as a virus, CD8 T cells begin to rapidly multiply. At this stage, they are called effector cells and act like foot soldiers, killing infected cells. Once the pathogen is gone, most effector cells die to ensure they don’t begin to attack your own body.

The ones that survive become memory cells, which are more like specialized guards, patrolling your body for the same invaders for the rest of your life. The next time you get exposed to the same pathogen, these memory cells allow your body to respond much more quickly and protect you.

In a new study published in the scientific journal PNAS, Sanjabi and her team identified two molecules, Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2, that modify the survival of effector T cells and the development of memory CD8 T cells. Their findings offer promising potential for immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer and chronic infections.

Better Without Sprouty

Using animal models that Sanjabi has been developing for the past 10 years, the researchers in her laboratory deleted both Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2 from CD8 T cells to see what would happen.

They found that a larger than usual number of effector cells survive and become memory cells. The team also showed that the resulting memory cells, which lack the Sprouty molecules, actually have better protective capacity against a bacterial pathogen than regular memory cells.

They also showed these same memory cells consume less glucose (sugar) as an energy source than normal CD8 T cells. While effector cells depend on glucose to live, memory cells generally use more fatty acids.

“Tumor cells use a lot of glucose, so effector cells have difficulty surviving in the tumor environment because it doesn’t have a sufficient source of energy,” explained Hesham Shehata, PhD, former postdoctoral scholar in Sanjabi’s laboratory and first author of the study. “While memory cells generally don’t depend on glucose, our study suggests that effector cells without Sprouty 1 and 2 consume less glucose, so they could survive and function in a tumor environment much better.”

Memory Is Good for Immunotherapy

Sanjabi’s study offers a new way to increase the number, survival, and function of memory CD8 T cells, which could provide better protection against tumors and pathogenic infections.

“By shedding light on the role of Sprouty 1 and 2, our work revealed another layer of the underlying biology of T cells,” said Shehata. “Cells that lack Sprouty 1 and 2 have immense potential not only to fight tumors, but chronic viral infections as well. It’s exciting that our study can be applied to multiple contexts.”

In the case of HIV, for instance, deleting the two Sprouty molecules could lead to memory cells that better survive and could effectively kill the activated cells harboring latent virus, one of the main barriers to a cure.

As for cancer immunotherapy, recent studies have shown that approaches using memory cells can help reduce tumor sizes or even completely eliminate tumors, as compared to treatments using effector cells that have led to more patients relapsing.

“There’s been great interest within the scientific community to enhance the development and function of memory CD8 T cells, which work better for immunotherapies than effector T cells,” said Sanjabi, who is also an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at UC San Francisco. “Our findings could provide an opportunity to improve future engineering of CAR T cells against tumors. This could potentially be used in combination with a genome editing technique like CRISPR that would remove the Sprouty 1 and 2 molecules from the cells to make them more effective.”

Source:

https://gladstone.org/about-us/press-releases/two-molecules-offer-great-potential-combat-cancer-and-chronic-infections

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles