Breaking News
April 24, 2019 - Researchers uncover potential clue to halt destruction of nerve cells in people with ALS
April 24, 2019 - Study uncovers reasons for poor mental health in bisexual people
April 24, 2019 - Screenings, interventions, and referrals can help adolescents overcome substance abuse
April 24, 2019 - Febrile seizures following vaccination are self-resolving and not dangerous
April 24, 2019 - Flow-UV inline UV-Visible spectrometer monitors dispersion in real time
April 24, 2019 - Rates of Marijuana Use in Cancer Patients on the Rise in U.S.
April 24, 2019 - Versatile drug may protect baby from hazards of intraamniotic infections
April 24, 2019 - Financial transparency may diminish trust in doctors, new study finds
April 24, 2019 - Calling all Riders: Velocity Extends Free Registration 
April 24, 2019 - The Homeless Are Dying In Record Numbers On The Streets Of L.A.
April 24, 2019 - Simple mobility test helps predict hospital readmission in elderly heart attack patients
April 24, 2019 - Novel fluorescence imaging system helps surgeons remove small ovarian tumors
April 24, 2019 - Uncovering the Structure of HIV Integrase to Inform Drug Discovery
April 24, 2019 - Medical Marijuana Use Rising Among Cancer Patients
April 24, 2019 - Artificial intelligence approach optimizes embryo selection for IVF
April 24, 2019 - Doctor or detective? Sleuthing mysteries in medical school
April 24, 2019 - CUIMC Community Gives Blood During Spring 2019 Columbia University Blood Drive
April 24, 2019 - Americans Overwhelmingly Want Federal Protections Against Surprise Medical Bills
April 24, 2019 - Making Laboratories More Efficient with the Most Modern LIMS on the Market
April 24, 2019 - Treating cancer patients with personalized, combination therapies improves outcomes
April 24, 2019 - Researchers engineer new molecules to help stop lung cancer
April 24, 2019 - Acupuncture can be a wonderful tool for preventing number of diseases
April 24, 2019 - Daily life disability before hip replacement may predict poor post-operative outcomes
April 24, 2019 - Study finds involuntary staying in housing estates to be a potential health risk
April 24, 2019 - Older kidney disease patients starting dialysis die at higher rates than previously thought
April 24, 2019 - Time-restricted eating shows promise for controlling blood glucose levels
April 24, 2019 - Ambiguous genitalia in newborns may be more common than previously thought
April 24, 2019 - Research provides important insight on the brain-body connection
April 24, 2019 - In 10 Years, Half Of Middle-Income Elders Won’t Be Able To Afford Housing, Medical Care
April 24, 2019 - Researchers study how E. coli clones have become major cause of drug-resistant infections
April 24, 2019 - Bacterial and fungal toxins found in popular electronic cigarettes
April 24, 2019 - Factors affecting absorption of ‘sunshine vitamin’ during spring/summer months
April 24, 2019 - Texting helps improve medication adherence, health outcomes for patients with schizophrenia
April 24, 2019 - Cochrane Review looks at different ways to use nicotine replacement therapies
April 24, 2019 - New review on relationship between COPD and Type 2 diabetes
April 24, 2019 - Brain areas linked to memory and emotion aid odor navigation in humans
April 24, 2019 - Brain stimulation reverses age-related memory loss
April 24, 2019 - Amid Opioid Prescriber Crackdown, Health Officials Reach Out To Pain Patients
April 24, 2019 - $4 million NIH award will help establish UCI Skin Biology Resource-based Center
April 24, 2019 - Cancer drugs reprogram genes in breast tumors to prevent endocrine resistance, finds study
April 24, 2019 - Combination-imaging technique provides new window into macaque brain connections
April 24, 2019 - Researchers identify new allergen responsible for allergy to durum wheat
April 24, 2019 - Researchers define role of rare, influential cells in the bone marrow
April 24, 2019 - DNA rearrangement may predict poor outcomes in multiple myeloma
April 24, 2019 - FDA Approves Skyrizi (risankizumab-rzaa) for Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis
April 24, 2019 - Combination therapy might be beneficial in schizophrenia
April 24, 2019 - Blood test can help match cancer patients to early phase clinical trials
April 24, 2019 - Women tend to underreport snoring and underestimate its loudness
April 24, 2019 - Comprehensive molecular test introduced for diagnosis of malaria caused by P. vivax parasites
April 24, 2019 - New range prediction approach increases accuracy, safety and tolerability of proton therapy
April 24, 2019 - Need for Sedation Up for Regular Cannabis Users
April 24, 2019 - Lack of access to antibiotics is a major global health challenge
April 24, 2019 - New study provides better understanding on safety of deworming programs
April 24, 2019 - EEG used to detect impact of maternal stress on neurodevelopment in 2-month-old infants
April 24, 2019 - FDA Approves First Generic Naloxone Nasal Spray Against Opioid Overdose
April 24, 2019 - A new way of finding compounds that prevent aging
April 24, 2019 - Mechanical training makes synthetic hydrogels perform more like muscle
April 24, 2019 - Study provides new insights into regulatory T cells’ role in protecting against autoimmune disease
April 24, 2019 - Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes are at greater risk of preterm birth
April 24, 2019 - ‘Tummy tuck’ can be safely performed in obese patients with no increase in complications
April 23, 2019 - ‘First’ 3-D print of heart with human tissue, vessels unveiled
April 23, 2019 - Which blood-based method works best to detect TB?
April 23, 2019 - Gene therapy cures infants suffering from ‘bubble boy’ immune disease
April 23, 2019 - Chemical-sampling wristbands detect similar exposures across three continents
April 23, 2019 - Management of Residual Limb Pain
April 23, 2019 - Molecular clock influences immune cell responses
April 23, 2019 - On the importance of culture, partnerships and diversity at the Dean’s Lecture Series
April 23, 2019 - Siddhartha Mukherjee Receives Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing About Science
April 23, 2019 - Dengue mosquito poses greatest danger of spreading Zika virus in Australia
April 23, 2019 - Scientists identify 104 high-risk genes for schizophrenia
April 23, 2019 - Abdominal etching can help patients to get classic ‘six-pack abs’ physique
April 23, 2019 - Alvogen Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Fentanyl Transdermal System Due to Product Mislabeling
April 23, 2019 - Skype hypnotherapy is effective treatment for IBS
April 23, 2019 - The future hope of “flash” radiation cancer therapy
April 23, 2019 - Bicycling, Recycling, and Beyond: Public Safety to Host Shred Fest and Bike-to-Campus Day 
April 23, 2019 - Skipping breakfast linked with increased risk of death from heart disease
April 23, 2019 - Neuroscientists propose new theory about amyloid precursor protein connection in Alzheimer’s
April 23, 2019 - Mediterranean diet protects against overeating and obesity
April 23, 2019 - NUS scientists uncover novel biomarkers linked with ‘chemobrain’
April 23, 2019 - Novel ECCITE-seq technique expands multimodal single cell analysis
Scientists get unprecedented view of brain development through high-resolution genomic map

Scientists get unprecedented view of brain development through high-resolution genomic map

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have created a massive database of the changes in gene activity of individual cells in the cerebellum during embryonic development and immediately after birth. The analysis of thousands of brain cells isolated from mice offers researchers a high-resolution map that enables scientists to view the detailed genomic changes cells undergo as the cerebellum wires its neural circuitry. The research will not only aid basic understanding of brain development, but also provide a foundation for understanding the cellular origins of brain disorders caused by errors in development. These anatomical defects include Joubert syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. The database will enable future studies tracing the cellular origins of childhood brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and ependymoma.

Researchers worldwide can interact with the data via an interface St. Jude has created called Cell Seek.

The findings appear today in the journal Current Biology. The research was led by co-corresponding authors John Easton, Ph.D., of the Department of Computational Biology; Paul Northcott, Ph.D., of the Department of Developmental Neurobiology; and Charles Gawad, M.D., Ph.D., of the Departments of Oncology and Computational Biology.

Although the cerebellum constitutes only about 10 percent of brain volume in humans, it contains more than half of all nerve cells in the central nervous system. The cerebellum is also a key brain control center, coordinating motor function and governing higher functions such as attention, and spatial and language processing.

In their research, Easton, Northcott, Gawad and their colleagues used a genetic sequencing technology called single-cell RNA-seq to measure the continually changing activity of genes in single brain cells isolated from embryonic and newborn mice. The researchers sequenced RNA because the level of such RNA reflects the level of gene activity, or “expression,” in the cell. RNA acts as the template to construct proteins that are the building blocks of cells.

Most such previous brain developmental studies analyzed changes in mixes of different brain cell types or studied a limited number of genes. However, the St. Jude researchers analyzed gene expression in a vast array of genes in each of the cell types present in the developing mouse brain.

To compile their data, scientists performed RNA-seq analyses of 39,245 brain cells during 12 time points of brain development. The 12 time points–a sequence of days during brain development–were well known as stages when immature brain cells “decide” to develop into mature specialized cells.

“What we have done is acquire global expression profiles of individual cells without using any prior knowledge. This has allowed us to study how many cell types there are at a specific development point and how they are related to each other in a much less biased manner than previous strategies,” Gawad said. “If we can capture cells in these different developmental states, we can begin to understand pediatric diseases that happen as a result of abnormal cerebellar development.”

“Also, since most brain tumors in young children occur in the cerebellar region, this will help us identify the cells of origin for different brain tumors and brain tumor subtypes,” he said.

To demonstrate their database, the researchers traced the gene expression in a type of immature brain cell called a glutamatergic progenitor cell as it “decided” what type of mature brain cell to become. Their analysis revealed that the decision point was characterized by waves of activation of master-control genes called transcription factors that regulate other genes.

“This analysis showed us that the developmental program for these cells was even more complex than we previously appreciated,” Gawad said. The finding opens the door for a deeper understanding of the type and order of genetic processes that drive these cells’ maturation, he said.

The Cell Seek interface will enable researchers worldwide to glean insight into brain development from the data, Gawad said.

“These kinds of data would not otherwise be accessible to many labs, as they are even more complex to analyze than traditional RNA sequencing data,” he said.

“We wanted to build an easy-to-use interface that allowed labs without bioinformatics capability to mine the data,” Gawad said. “With Cell Seek, they can easily track the developmental processes they are interested in and use the insights to inform their experiments to study cerebellar development and disease.”

Other St. Jude researchers are already using Cell Seek in their studies of both normal development and childhood cancer formation.

Source:

https://www.stjude.org/media-resources/news-releases/2018-medicine-science-news/high-resolution-genomic-map-gives-scientists-unprecedented-view-of-brain-development.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles