Breaking News
December 10, 2018 - Australian researchers to study gas inhalational anaesthetic and likelihood of cancer return
December 10, 2018 - Individual neurons located within the brain have implications for psychiatric diseases
December 10, 2018 - Researchers improve bariatric surgery scoring system to extend prediction time for diabetic remission
December 10, 2018 - Combo therapy not needed if low RA disease activity achieved
December 10, 2018 - UC San Diego professor receives NCI Outstanding Investigator Award for cancer research
December 10, 2018 - Study evaluates placental mesenchymal stem cell sheets for myocardial repair and regeneration
December 10, 2018 - Blueprint Medicines Announces Updated Results from Ongoing EXPLORER Clinical Trial of Avapritinib Demonstrating Broad Clinical Activity and Significant Symptom Reductions in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis
December 10, 2018 - Study clarifies ApoE4’s role in dementia
December 10, 2018 - Eating disorders now a top priority with Australian Government
December 10, 2018 - Neuronal activity in the brain allows prediction of risky or safe decisions
December 10, 2018 - FDA Alerts Health Care Professionals and Patients Not to Use Drug Products Intended to be Sterile from Promise Pharmacy
December 10, 2018 - Improving dementia care and treatment saves thousands of pounds in care homes
December 10, 2018 - Heroin-assisted treatment can offer benefits, reduce harms
December 10, 2018 - People covered by Michigan’s expanded Medicaid program report improvements in health, finds study
December 10, 2018 - Hazelnuts improve micronutrient levels in older adults
December 9, 2018 - History of Partner Violence Tied to Menopause Symptoms
December 9, 2018 - Clean Up Safely After a Disaster|Natural Disasters and Severe Weather
December 9, 2018 - Drug wholesalers drove fentanyl’s deadly rise, report concludes
December 9, 2018 - Deprescribing could help manage polypharmacy in older adults
December 9, 2018 - Retraction of article “Joy of cooking too much” from journal
December 9, 2018 - FDA Warns of Rare Stroke Risk With MS Drug Lemtrada (Alemtuzumab)
December 9, 2018 - Feds say heroin, fentanyl remain biggest drug threat to US
December 9, 2018 - Eliminating microglia can reverse some aspects of stress sensitization, study shows
December 9, 2018 - New genetic insight could help treat rare debilitating heart and lung condition
December 9, 2018 - MiRagen Therapeutics Announces Final Safety, Biodistribution and Clinical Efficacy Data From Phase 1 Cobomarsen Clinical Trial in Patients With Mycosis Fungoides
December 9, 2018 - Work with your doctor to weigh pros, cons of treatment options for hyperthyroidism
December 9, 2018 - CWRU researcher secures $14.6 million funding for genetic study into Alzheimer’s disease
December 9, 2018 - High intensity statin treatment and adherence could save more lives
December 9, 2018 - Surgery patients use only 1/4 of prescribed opioids, and prescription size matters
December 9, 2018 - AXT offers Phi Optics upgrade to QPI systems for inverted light microscopes
December 9, 2018 - New booklet could help improve conditions of young pupils with albinism
December 9, 2018 - Few Physicians Work in Practices That Use Telemedicine
December 9, 2018 - Older Adults and Oral Health
December 9, 2018 - Health utility values improve after septorhinoplasty
December 9, 2018 - New EU-funded project provides insight into how the brain develops
December 9, 2018 - Expanded use of tele-emergency services can help strengthen rural hospitals
December 9, 2018 - Infections in the Young May Be Tied to Risk for Mental Illness: Study
December 9, 2018 - Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders
December 9, 2018 - Snoring poses greater cardiac risk to women
December 9, 2018 - Researcher takes further steps in understanding how and why cute aggression occurs
December 9, 2018 - Researchers create new light-activated tools for controlling neurons
December 9, 2018 - Spinal cord injury disrupts the body’s internal clock, study shows
December 9, 2018 - Babies recognize nested structures similar to our grammar
December 9, 2018 - UT Austin researcher receives $2.5 million CZI grant for neurodegenerative disease research
December 9, 2018 - Sleep problems found to be prevalent and increasing among college students
December 9, 2018 - Study reveals why some children are susceptible to the effects of maltreatment
December 9, 2018 - Study investigates influence of different opioids on driving performance
December 9, 2018 - Jazz Pharmaceuticals Announces First Patient Enrolled in Phase 3 Clinical Trial Evaluating JZP-258 for the Treatment of Idiopathic Hypersomnia
December 9, 2018 - Eliminating microglia prevents heightened immune sensitivity after stress
December 9, 2018 - Boys with social difficulties are at greatest risk of early substance use
December 9, 2018 - ‘Wrong’ connective tissue cells linked to worse prognosis in breast cancer patients
December 8, 2018 - Chronic, refractory schizophrenia patients benefit from targeted cognitive training
December 8, 2018 - Advertising in kids’ apps more prevalent than parents may realize
December 8, 2018 - New way to trace the transmission histories of rare genetic diseases
December 8, 2018 - ASH: A+CHP Bests CHOP for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma
December 8, 2018 - Results of pediatric genomic epilepsy tests often reclassified
December 8, 2018 - New way of controlling HIV latency to completely eradicate the virus
December 8, 2018 - Phasefocus to showcase the Livecyte 2 at ASCB
December 8, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Is health spending the next big political issue?
December 8, 2018 - Mussels take in microplastic pollution fibers and flush most of them out again
December 8, 2018 - AHA: How to Stop Smoking … for Good
December 8, 2018 - Scientists overturn odds to make Parkinson’s discovery
December 8, 2018 - Health benefits of producing marula vinegar
December 8, 2018 - Failure of critical cellular energy sensor responsible for CKD progression, study finds
December 8, 2018 - Ethnicity can be reliable indicator of gut microbiota diversity
December 8, 2018 - Safe Sleep for Baby | NIH News in Health
December 8, 2018 - Study looks at ways technology can support nutritional needs of Parkinson’s patients
December 8, 2018 - Infant milk allergy is being overdiagnosed say experts
December 8, 2018 - Graphene may one day be used to test for ALS
December 8, 2018 - Houston Methodist launches real-time website to track flu cases
December 8, 2018 - RedHill Announces Positive Top-Line Results from Confirmatory Phase 3 Study with Talicia for H. pylori Infection
December 8, 2018 - A way to measure obesity and health beyond BMI
December 8, 2018 - New diagnostic tools may help identify breast cancer patients who could benefit from targeted therapies
December 8, 2018 - Duke-NUS researchers highlight possible role of bioaerosol sampling in pandemic surveillance
December 8, 2018 - Study quantifies links between alcohol, drug use and violent deaths
December 8, 2018 - Mothers’ stress levels at conception linked to child’s response to life challenges at age 11
December 8, 2018 - MIT researchers develop antimicrobial peptides from South American wasp’s venom
December 8, 2018 - Obesity prevention among low-income, diverse preschool-aged children and parents
December 8, 2018 - Mount Sinai researcher awarded $2.5 million to advance understanding of neurodegenerative diseases
December 8, 2018 - CZI announces funding for open-source software efforts to improve image analysis in biomedicine
Study points toward new strategies for managing organ transplantation

Study points toward new strategies for managing organ transplantation

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The human intestine may provide up to 10 percent of blood cells in circulation from its own reservoir of blood-forming stem cells, a surprising new study from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons has found.

Scientists had previously thought that blood cells are created exclusively in the bone marrow from a special population of hematopoietic stem cells.

Why It Matters

Intestinal transplantation is the only long-term option for patients with Crohn’s and other diseases if their intestines fail. But high rejection rates and life-threatening complications from immunosuppression have limited the success of human intestinal transplantation.

When a person receives a transplanted organ, the immune system often recognizes the new organ as foreign and destroys it. Powerful immunosuppressive drugs blunt these responses, but that makes the patient much more susceptible to infections and other complications.

How Do Blood Cells From the Donor Help the Transplant Recipient?

Analysis of circulating white blood cells in patients after intestinal transplantation suggests that the cells derived from the donated intestine have matured and been educated in the recipient to be tolerant of the recipient’s own tissues. Likewise, white blood cells made by the recipient after the transplant may be educated to be tolerant of the donated tissue.

“We are clearly showing that there’s immunological cross-talk between the two sets of blood cells that protects the transplant from the patient’s immune system and protects the patient from the transplant,” says Sykes.

The hematopoietic stem cells in the intestine are eventually replaced by a circulating pool from the recipient, the researchers also found.

How the Finding Could Improve Transplantation

Because patients with more donor blood cells had lower organ rejection rates, the results point toward new strategies for managing organ transplantation.

The intestine’s reservoir of blood-forming stem cells was discovered when researchers–led by Megan Sykes, MD, director of the Columbia Center for Translational Immunology–noticed that the blood of patients who had received intestinal transplants contained cells from the donor. The researchers tracked the donor’s blood cells back to their source: hematopoietic stem cells in the donated intestine.

The blood cells created from cells in the donor’s intestine also may be beneficial to the transplant recipient. The more donor blood cells a patient had in circulation, the less likely they were to reject their transplants.

“It’s possible that patients with a high level of donor cells may not require as much immunosuppression as they are currently getting,” says Sykes, “and reducing immunosuppression could improve outcomes.”

Seeding transplanted organs with additional hematopoietic stem cells from the donor may also increase donor-recipient cross-talk and boost tolerance of the transplant.

“That could improve the lives of transplant patients dramatically,” Sykes says. “Our ultimate goal is to get immune tolerance, which would allow us to remove immunosuppression altogether and have the graft treated as self by the patient. That’s really the Holy Grail.”

What’s Next

The researchers are planning a study that will try to boost the number of hematopoietic stem cells delivered during intestinal transplantation, hopefully leading to higher levels of donor blood cells in circulation, immune tolerance, and a reduced need for immunosuppressive drugs.

Other types of transplants may benefit from similar interventions, even for organs that don’t appear to carry their own reservoirs of hematopoietic stem cells.

Caveats

This study analyzed 21 patients who had received intestinal transplants.

Although the finding of a novel population of hematopoietic stem cells is exciting, it does not yet justify changes in the current standard of care.

Megan Sykes is also the Michael J. Friedlander Professor of Medicine and professor of microbiology & immunology and of surgical sciences (in the Department of Surgery) at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons.

The study, “Human Intestinal Allografts Contain Functional Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells that are Maintained by a Circulating Pool,” was published Nov. 29 in Cell Stem Cell.

Source:

https://www.cuimc.columbia.edu/news/some-blood-cells-have-surprising-source-your-gut

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles