Breaking News
September 20, 2018 - Driving and older adults: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
September 20, 2018 - Researchers test autobiographical memory for early Alzheimer’s detection
September 20, 2018 - Organizations join forces to help teens with severe mental health challenges | News Center
September 20, 2018 - Potential drugs to treat neurodegenerative diseases garner $3 million grant
September 20, 2018 - Processing speed important to higher order cognitive function in multiple sclerosis patients
September 20, 2018 - Helping a patient survive a hurricane
September 20, 2018 - Tafamidis Treats Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy
September 20, 2018 - Low academic achievement can lead to drug abuse decades later, research finds
September 20, 2018 - Study identifies stem cell that gives rise to new bone, cartilage in humans | News Center
September 20, 2018 - Celltrion and Emory University sign ‘Incubation’ agreement to develop new drug candidates for atherosclerosis
September 20, 2018 - TGen and PNOC take part in launch of NIH-supported Kids First Data Resource Portal
September 20, 2018 - Could Household Cleaners Make Your Kid Fat?
September 20, 2018 - Addiction nonprofit makes searching for services simple
September 20, 2018 - We are bombarded by thousands of diverse species and chemicals | News Center
September 20, 2018 - Experts to Present Prostate Cancer Advances at Patient Summit
September 20, 2018 - Alector announces initiation of Phase 1 trial of AL001 for treating frontotemporal dementia
September 20, 2018 - Pfizer’s 20vPnC vaccine receives Breakthrough Therapy designation from FDA
September 20, 2018 - Study could allow doctors to screen patients at risk from Aspergillus
September 20, 2018 - Emergex signs MoU with Brazil’s Fiocruz for development of viral vaccines
September 20, 2018 - The ‘real you’ is a myth – we constantly create false memories to achieve the identity we want
September 20, 2018 - Researchers describe cell mechanism that optimizes proteins production in stressful situations
September 20, 2018 - Cell Medica successfully doses first patient with CMD-501 targeting pediatric neuroblastoma
September 20, 2018 - Sesen Bio to present its three-month Phase 3 VISTA Trial data at Global Congress
September 20, 2018 - Senators unveil legislation to protect patients against surprise medical bills
September 20, 2018 - Study provides insights into development of special-purpose cosmetic products
September 20, 2018 - Research shows enlarged genotype-phenotype correlation for three-base pair deletion in NF1
September 20, 2018 - 91% of people around the world believe medical research will result in dementia cure
September 20, 2018 - DePuy Synthes introduces CONCORDE LIFT Expandable Interbody Device at EUROSPINE 2018
September 20, 2018 - Manx Telecom unveils MT clearSound that improves clarity of mobile phone calls
September 20, 2018 - Mediterranean-style diet appears to reduce stroke risk in women
September 20, 2018 - AbbVie Announces Patient-Reported Outcomes Data from Three Pivotal Phase 3 Studies of Risankizumab, Showing Significant Improvements in Health-Related Quality of Life for Patients with Psoriasis
September 20, 2018 - Characterization of pregnancy microbiome reveals variations in bacterial diversity
September 20, 2018 - New guidance for treatment of bone loss in hematologic stem cell transplant Recipients
September 20, 2018 - Experts to present research on prevention, management of dysphagia at international conference
September 20, 2018 - New study focuses on two-way gene switches controlling gene activity
September 20, 2018 - Zika virus could become a weapon against brain cancer
September 20, 2018 - Home-based video game exercises can reduce chronic low back pain in older people, study finds
September 20, 2018 - Investigators find that bile acids reduce cocaine reward
September 20, 2018 - Cannabinoid drugs reduce perceived unpleasantness of painful stimuli and increase tolerance
September 20, 2018 - Health care companies’ data could enable more accurate flu season forecasts
September 20, 2018 - Geroscience takes center stage in Journal of the American Medical Association
September 20, 2018 - Ambient Particulate Matter Linked to Emergency Asthma Care
September 20, 2018 - Patient satisfaction with plastic surgery—it’s the surgeon, not the practice
September 20, 2018 - Medicine is a team sport – and that’s exactly how it should be
September 20, 2018 - Logos Biosystems releases new electrophoretic tissue clearing system with twice the features in half the space
September 20, 2018 - Novel micro-platform reveals never-before-seen behaviors of cancer cells
September 20, 2018 - PAREXEL partners with Datavant to enhance clinical study design and generate real-world evidence
September 20, 2018 - Robert Koch Institute publishes new data on allergies, mental health problems, and accident injuries
September 20, 2018 - Study finds higher readmission rates in for-profit hospitals
September 20, 2018 - Encouraging youth to do strength-based exercises could help tackle child obesity
September 20, 2018 - Sleep apnea, congenital heart disease in hospitalized infants strongly associated with death
September 20, 2018 - Researchers find way to map mysterious content of non-coding RNA
September 20, 2018 - Air Pollutants Reach Placenta, Might Harm Fetus: Study
September 20, 2018 - Sleep apnea, congenital heart disease may be deadly mix for hospitalized infants
September 20, 2018 - My relative has cancer, should I worry? Encouraging cascade genetic testing
September 20, 2018 - Investigators determine specific treatable traits that can predict future asthma attacks
September 20, 2018 - More doctor visits can lower risk of suicide attempts in fibromyalgia patients
September 20, 2018 - Computer avatars play role in diagnosis of dementia
September 20, 2018 - Addition of CTLA4 targeted therapy to PD-1 targeted therapy may benefit patients with ovarian cancer
September 20, 2018 - ASPREE trial explores whether low dose aspirin can prolong good health in elderly people
September 20, 2018 - ATS publishes new guideline focused on weight loss strategies for sleep apnea patients
September 20, 2018 - The Current issue of “The view from here” is concerned with Drug Delivery
September 19, 2018 - Sleep apnea could favour tumor growth at young ages
September 19, 2018 - Stealth vaping fad hidden from parents, teachers
September 19, 2018 - Witnessing school violence linked to later risk of psycho-social and academic impairment
September 19, 2018 - Common household cleaners could make children overweight by changing gut microbiota
September 19, 2018 - Salk research in yeast leads to serendipitous finding about hypomyelinating leukodystrophy
September 19, 2018 - Study: Overweight or obese women may have increased risk of urinary incontinence
September 19, 2018 - Study shows how cellular waste disposal processes also promote inflammation
September 19, 2018 - New multidisciplinary microsurgery microscope, PROVIDO, introduced by Leica
September 19, 2018 - Phase 2b STORM Data Evaluating Selinexor in Patients with Penta-Refractory Multiple Myeloma Presented at the Society of Hematologic Oncology 2018 Annual Meeting
September 19, 2018 - Decisions recruiting gut feelings seen as reflection of true self, more assuredly held, study says
September 19, 2018 - How AI can improve end-of-life care
September 19, 2018 - UNIST and Ulsan initiate research collaboration to develop human organs-on-chips
September 19, 2018 - Study highlights key role of migrating shoals of fish in sustaining deep-ocean microorganisms
September 19, 2018 - Disagreeable individuals can benefit most from behaving more compassionately, finds study
September 19, 2018 - Janssen Submits New Drug Application to U.S. FDA Seeking Approval of Erdafitinib for the Treatment of Metastatic Urothelial Cancer
September 19, 2018 - Neuroplasticity is increased but dysregulated in the aging brain, study finds
September 19, 2018 - Suicide: A public health crisis
September 19, 2018 - Infants using popular anti-reflux medicines are not at increased risk of lung infections
Stem cells do not participate directly in cartilage regeneration but serve to ‘animate’ the process

Stem cells do not participate directly in cartilage regeneration but serve to ‘animate’ the process

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Stem cell therapy has great potential for curing cartilage damage. However, it has remained unclear whether stem cells are responsible for regeneration or whether they trigger the process. Researchers at the Vetmeduni Vienna have been able to resolve this issue by tracking the effects in a new, natural model. After injection, stem cells orchestrate the healing effect of endogenous cells but are not responsible for cartilage regeneration. The breakthrough is published in JCI-Insight and was enabled by preventing the normal immune response to the molecule required to trace the injected cells.

Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells, the so-called progenitor cells of connective tissue, holds great promise for the regeneration of cartilage tissue but how stem cell therapy contributes to the healing of damaged connective tissue has been unclear. Debate has centered on whether the injected cells promote regeneration or stimulate the body’s own cells to proliferate. A new strategy has now enabled researchers from the Department of Biomedical Sciences of the Vetmeduni Vienna to solve the question. The problem was that a marker protein was recognized by the immune system of the recipient as a non-self protein, leading to the rejection of the injected stem cells. The Vetmeduni Vienna scientists were able to overcome this limitation and show that progenitor cells do not participate directly in cartilage regeneration but serve to “animate” the process.

New model reveals mode of action of stem cells

“To date, it has not been possible to show what an injection of stem cells really does in an animal model,” explains Reinhold Erben, the senior author of the study. “The problem is that you have to track the cells with particular proteins that the immune system of the recipient recognizes as non-endogenous and thus potentially harmful. The resulting rejection of the injected cells has prevented the validation of their mode of action.”

It was thus only possible to track stem cells in immunodeficient animal models that had no reaction to the proteins due to a genetically reduced immune system. These models could not provide any clues about the mode of action of the stem cells. “We therefore worked with a ‘lifelike’ animal model that is immunocompetent but shows no response to our tracker molecule. This enabled us to show that stem cells have a purely modulating action in the treatment of cartilage damage,” says Erben.

A new animal model

“We developed a so-called double-transgenic animal model for the purpose,” notes Erben. Special donor and recipient lines of mice and rats were bred that expressed an artificially introduced human cell-surface protein, the placental alkaline phosphatase, ALPP, on all their cells to enable them to be  traced.  In addition, the ALPP of the recipient line differed from that of the donors at a single amino acid. As the two protein variants are almost identical, the immune system cannot distinguish the body’s own cells from those of the donor. “Moreover, the mutation inactivates the otherwise heat-stable protein at high temperatures, allowing the recipient cells to be differentiated from the donor cells during the experiment,” explains Erben.

New system as motivation for stem cell therapy

The idea of using a protein variant both to enable the detection of the tracking molecule and to deceive the immune system of the recipient lines can be applied in other animal models. ALPP – like the green fluorescent protein, GFP, and luciferase – is commonly used as a marker protein. “Unlike other tracking molecules, the two variants represent the perfect combination for stem cell research,” says Erben.

The use of a double transgenic system without the loss of immunocompetence should support stem cell research in fields other than cartilage regeneration. “Our results contribute to our understanding of stem cell therapy, as they show for the first time that therapy stimulates the body’s own cells to promote the regeneration of damaged connective tissue, such as cartilage,” concludes Erben.

Source:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2017/stem-cells-conduct-cartilage-regeneration-but-are-not-directly-involved/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles