Breaking News
July 21, 2018 - FDA Approves Nivestym (filgrastim-aafi), a Biosimilar to Neupogen
July 21, 2018 - Surgeons have substantial impact on genetic testing in breast cancer patients who need it
July 21, 2018 - Species diversity can have positive and negative impacts on disease transmission
July 21, 2018 - Genome research suggests presence of enteric fever in medieval Europe
July 21, 2018 - Risk of Sensory Deficits Drops With Rising Gestational Age
July 21, 2018 - Mum’s sleep matters—the effect of sleep on an unborn baby
July 21, 2018 - UC San Diego researchers awarded two grants for investigating stem cell-based therapies
July 21, 2018 - Cellular ‘garbage disposal’ may actually work on some of the proteins to neuronal development
July 21, 2018 - More Pregnant Women Having Heart Attacks
July 21, 2018 - Acne Breakouts | NIH News in Health
July 21, 2018 - Change health messaging to focus on potential impact to help stop the next pandemic
July 21, 2018 - Frailty associated with poor survival rates in young heart patients
July 21, 2018 - New discovery could save millions of lives from fatal fungal infections
July 21, 2018 - OBD presents latest data on the use of EpiSwitch™ in predicting patient response to immunotherapy and identifying lymphoma subtypes
July 21, 2018 - Childhood adversity increases susceptibility to addiction via immune response
July 21, 2018 - Scientists identify potential target for the treatment of binge eating
July 21, 2018 - Whole-brain LIPUS therapy improves cognitive dysfunction in mice simulating dementia, Alzheimer’s
July 21, 2018 - Digital media use raising risk of ADHD symptoms among the young
July 21, 2018 - Phase 3 study of tanezumab in patients with osteoarthritis pain meets all three co-primary endpoints
July 21, 2018 - Restoring mitochondrial function to reverse aging-related skin wrinkles, hair loss in mice
July 21, 2018 - SP PennTech introduces RW-500 rotary vial washer for biotech, pharmaceutical applications
July 21, 2018 - Researchers to study molecular mechanisms behind susceptibility of males to autism
July 21, 2018 - Fourth Published Clinical Trial Confirms Long-Term Safety of Niagen Supplementation at High Doses and Shows Potential for Improvement in Liver Health
July 21, 2018 - Study examines effects of a two-day intermittent calorie restriction diet for patients with type 2 diabetes
July 21, 2018 - Greening vacant urban land reduces feelings of depression for surrounding residents
July 21, 2018 - Parents say intense gun violence in PG-13 movies appropriate for teens 15 and older
July 21, 2018 - Collaborative study to assess effects of exercise training for cognitive deficits in MS
July 21, 2018 - FAU researchers find possible cause of Parkinson’s disease in the patients’ immune system
July 21, 2018 - Protective qualities of ‘good cholesterol’ reduce after menopause
July 21, 2018 - Researchers develop new way to uncover hidden breast cancer tumors
July 21, 2018 - FDA approves first drug for treatment of adult AML patients with specific genetic mutation
July 21, 2018 - Top AI companies join hands to discover novel drugs for DMD
July 21, 2018 - Ferring announces FDA approval of ZOMACTON for injection in four new pediatric indications
July 20, 2018 - Researchers design proteins that can self-assemble into complex structures
July 20, 2018 - AVITA Medical expands management team to support launch of RECELL device to treat burns
July 20, 2018 - FDA Approves Tibsovo (ivosidenib) for Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia with an IDH1 Mutation
July 20, 2018 - Developmental screening and surveillance rates remain low, new study suggests
July 20, 2018 - TGen opens tissue donation portal to advance DIPG research
July 20, 2018 - Health impact of highly processed summertime staples
July 20, 2018 - Exergaming can improve health in overweight and obese children, study shows
July 20, 2018 - Postmenopausal factors may impact heart-protective qualities of ‘good cholesterol’
July 20, 2018 - MRI and blood test combination results in improved prostate cancer diagnosis
July 20, 2018 - Update Health Professional and Consumer on Recent Recalled Products
July 20, 2018 - Researchers trace Parkinson’s damage in the heart
July 20, 2018 - Wearable device designed to measure cortisol in sweat
July 20, 2018 - Scientists demonstrate a new regulation mechanism for skeletal muscles
July 20, 2018 - Exposure to mobile phone radiation may negatively impact memory performance in adolescents
July 20, 2018 - SUSU scientists find alternative method to treat post-traumatic stress disorder syndrome
July 20, 2018 - Gestational diabetes may increase offspring’s heart disease risk
July 20, 2018 - New vaccine could protect unborn babies from Zika virus
July 20, 2018 - Researchers find high mercury and methylmercury concentrations in traditional Tibetan medicine
July 20, 2018 - Brief Safety Plan Intervention in ER Can Cut Suicidal Behavior
July 20, 2018 - The Mount Sinai Hospital receives accreditation as geriatric emergency department
July 20, 2018 - Toward a better understanding of Parkinson’s disease
July 20, 2018 - Med school communications office wins four national awards | News Center
July 20, 2018 - Professional baseball players with faster hand-eye coordination may have better batting performance
July 20, 2018 - Study looks into mechanisms that control sleep and wakefulness
July 20, 2018 - Scientists identify melanoma biomarkers that could help tailor immunotherapy treatments
July 20, 2018 - Research reveals long-term efficacy of drug used to treat common cause of kidney failure
July 20, 2018 - Timing of dinner associated with breast and prostate cancer risks
July 20, 2018 - Health Tip: Performing the Heimlich Maneuver
July 20, 2018 - Nearly all adolescents have eating, activity or weight-related issues
July 20, 2018 - Sage launches new web-based tool that helps explore curated genomic analyses of Alzheimer’s
July 20, 2018 - High-performance porous polymeric material for chromatography applications
July 20, 2018 - New molecule shows great promise for future treatment of many cancers
July 20, 2018 - New research project investigates alternative treatments for eye infections
July 20, 2018 - Immune T cells are built to react as fast as possible, shows study
July 20, 2018 - ZHX2 protein could offer a new treatment strategy for kidney cancer
July 20, 2018 - EKF’s Quo-Lab POC HbA1c analyzer meets international quality targets for diabetes testing
July 20, 2018 - Health burdens of very high risk drinking are potentially large, study reveals
July 20, 2018 - Using miniature drug-filled nanocarriers to target headaches and tumors
July 20, 2018 - Researchers uncover cause for progression of prostate cancer to incurable stage
July 20, 2018 - Studies highlight issues regarding black lung, opioid overdose, police violence and more
July 20, 2018 - AbbVie submits supplemental NDA to FDA for venetoclax to treat acute myeloid leukemia
July 20, 2018 - Researchers are one step closer to developing eye drops to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
July 20, 2018 - Patients maintain muscle mass five years after surgically induced weight loss
July 20, 2018 - AMSBIO introduces new, powerful CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing kits
July 20, 2018 - PureTech Health collaborates with Roche to advance oral administration of antisense oligonucleotides
July 20, 2018 - Analysis reveals disparities in cancer death rates among minority groups
July 20, 2018 - Dr Maddy Parsons receives Royal Microscopical Society Life Science Medal
Brain astrocytes could play key role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

Brain astrocytes could play key role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD. Published in Stem Cell Reports, the study investigated the brain cell function of familial AD patients by using stem cell technologies.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia type, with no treatment to slow down the progression of the disease currently available. The mechanisms of AD are poorly understood, and drug therapy has focused on restoring the normal function of neurons and microglia, i.e. cells mediating brain inflammation. The new study shows that astrocytes, also known as the housekeeping cells of the brain, promote the decline of neuron function in AD. The findings suggest that at least some familial forms of AD are strongly associated with irregular astrocyte function, which promotes brain inflammation and weakens neurons’ energy production and signaling.

Astrocytes are important brain cells, as they support neurons in many different ways. Astrocytes are responsible, for example, for the energy production of the brain, ion and pH balance, and they regulate synapse formation, the connections between neurons. Recent evidence suggests that human astrocytes are very different from their rodent counterparts and thus, it would be essential to use human cells to study human diseases. However, the availability of human astrocytes for research has been very limited. The study carried out at the University of Eastern Finland used the induced pluripotent stem cell technology, which enables the generation of pluripotent stem cells from human skin fibroblasts. These induced stem cells can then be further differentiated to brain cells, e.g. neurons and astrocytes, with the same genetic background as the donor had.
The study compared astrocytes from familial AD patients carrying a mutation in the presenilin 1 gene to astrocytes from healthy donors, and the effects of these cells on healthy neurons were also analysed.

The researchers found out that astrocytes in patients with Alzheimer’s disease produced significantly more beta-amyloid than astrocytes in persons without AD. Beta-amyloid is a toxic protein that is known to accumulate in the brains of AD patients. In addition, AD astrocytes secreted more cytokines, which are thought to mediate inflammation. AD astrocytes also showed alterations in their energy metabolism which likely led to increased production of reactive oxygen species and reduced production of lactate, an important energy substrate for neurons. Finally, when astrocytes were co-cultured with healthy neurons, AD astrocytes caused significant changes in the signaling activity of neurons when compared to healthy astrocytes.

This study was the first to show that astrocytes in patients with Alzheimer’s disease manifest many pathological changes typical of AD. Astrocytes could thus play a key role in the early stages of the disease and changes in the function of these cells could lead to neurodegeneration.

“The induced pluripotent stem cells we used in this study proved to be extremely useful in disease modeling, and they could offer an excellent platform for drug discovery and testing new therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease in the future,” says Early Stage Researcher Minna Oksanen, the lead author of the study.

Source:

https://www.uef.fi/-/aivojen-astrosyyteilla-havaittiin-yhteys-alzheimerin-tautiin

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles