Breaking News
May 27, 2018 - ‘Life support’ for transplant livers better than freezing: study
May 27, 2018 - Tree nut consumption linked to improved type 2 diabetes health
May 27, 2018 - Income and education gap causes racial differences in health behaviors, study shows
May 27, 2018 - Even at ‘Safe’ Levels, Air Pollution Puts Seniors at Risk
May 27, 2018 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to thinning of calvaria, skull base
May 27, 2018 - Epigem’s Managing Director sets the bar for life sciences industry at VentureFest
May 27, 2018 - CPAP may reduce resting heart rate in prediabetic patients
May 27, 2018 - Study reveals striking disparities in health care access and quality across most nations
May 27, 2018 - The Yogi masters were right—meditation and breathing exercises can sharpen your mind
May 27, 2018 - SLU researcher aims to find solutions for diabetes patients at risk of hypoglycemia
May 27, 2018 - Scientists uncover the cause of insulin resistance in obesity
May 27, 2018 - $2.3 million NIH grant to support new project on oxytocin neurons and social behavior
May 27, 2018 - Less Driving Tied to Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk
May 27, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy
May 27, 2018 - Long-term psychological study confirms time is the best medicine against homesickness
May 27, 2018 - Study explores if CPAP treatment can improve sexual QOL for sleep apnea patients
May 27, 2018 - Study investigates role played by brain in prosocial behavior
May 27, 2018 - New Guidelines Mean 1 in 3 Adults May Need Blood Pressure Meds
May 27, 2018 - Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
May 27, 2018 - Kids in tough neighborhoods head to ER more often
May 27, 2018 - Exercise alters brain’s dopamine system to help treat addiction, study finds
May 27, 2018 - Sepsis patients treated and released from ED for outpatient follow-up experience good outcomes
May 27, 2018 - Initiative cuts overuse of tests, treatments for bronchiolitis
May 27, 2018 - Study links ‘sleep spindles’ to memory reactivation
May 27, 2018 - Scientists develop new method to speed up genome evolution of baker’s yeast
May 27, 2018 - Sunscreen pills are fake says FDA
May 27, 2018 - Study finds increasing wealth gap between households of seniors and families with children
May 27, 2018 - Link between tuberculosis and Parkinson’s disease discovered
May 27, 2018 - Doctors call on health authorities for permission to provide stroke patients with life-saving treatment
May 26, 2018 - Couples who eat seafood-rich diet tend to get pregnant faster
May 26, 2018 - NIH summit presents recommendations to accelerate treatment development for Alzheimer’s disease
May 26, 2018 - Medication-related harm found to be common among older adults, but preventable
May 26, 2018 - Lunaphore and Vitro announce partnership to develop ISH protocols for RNA, DNA targets
May 26, 2018 - Cryoablation Efficacious for Cancer Pain, Review Finds
May 26, 2018 - Link between IBD and Parkinson’s might allow doctors to slow down condition
May 26, 2018 - Study finds fewer than 5% of low-income, urban mothers use prenatal vitamins before pregnancy
May 26, 2018 - California hospitals urge moms to favor breast milk over formula
May 26, 2018 - Most concussion patients do not receive follow-up care after hospital discharge, says study
May 26, 2018 - Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender
May 26, 2018 - Researchers find novel ways to improve participation in clinical research
May 26, 2018 - Researchers develop methods for measuring free-base nicotine levels in e-cigarettes
May 26, 2018 - AHA: Preterm Birth Could Warn of Mom’s Future Heart Risks
May 26, 2018 - Some calories more harmful than others
May 26, 2018 - Study links cell size with commitment to division
May 26, 2018 - Researchers develop new, rapid blood test to detect liver damage
May 26, 2018 - Researchers discover cascade of immune processes linked to poor outcomes in aggressive breast cancer
May 26, 2018 - New research will use mathematics to solve mysteries in cell biology
May 26, 2018 - Proposed National Resilience Strategy to reverse catastrophic increases in ‘deaths of despair’
May 26, 2018 - Mice remain slim on burger diet
May 26, 2018 - BMC receives $13.5 million award to test methods for delivering childhood anxiety treatment
May 26, 2018 - ‘Right to Try Act’ will not benefit terminally-ill patients
May 26, 2018 - Study reveals novel statistical algorithm to identify potential disease genes
May 26, 2018 - Two genes play vital roles in malignant brain cancer
May 26, 2018 - Study explores link between groundwater lithium and diagnoses of bipolar disorder, dementia
May 26, 2018 - Researchers reveal stimulatory effects of myelin on young neural cells
May 26, 2018 - Small part of cellular protein that helps form long-term memories also drives neurodegeneration
May 26, 2018 - Four-legged friends can have heart issues, too
May 26, 2018 - Scientists create small, self-contained spaces inside mammalian cells
May 26, 2018 - Better Social Support Network Protects Black Men Against HIV
May 26, 2018 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
May 26, 2018 - Burnout, depression can affect ophthalmology residents, study finds
May 26, 2018 - Latinos and African Americans more likely to experience serious depression than Whites
May 26, 2018 - Data from past epidemic could help improve response to future Ebola outbreaks
May 26, 2018 - Researchers provide insight into how the memory molecule limits brain plasticity
May 26, 2018 - OSU biologist describes ‘restoration ecology’ approach toward patient health
May 26, 2018 - New approach to study brown fat could aid in finding treatments for obesity
May 26, 2018 - UCI Center on Stress & Health receives NIH funding to develop digital health interventions
May 26, 2018 - Could More Fish in the Diet Boost Sex Lives and Fertility?
May 26, 2018 - NTU Singapore and SERI invent new scope to diagnose glaucoma
May 26, 2018 - Cancer cells co-opt pain-sensing ‘neural channel’ to increase tolerance against oxidative stress
May 26, 2018 - Study uncovers why pesticide exposure increases Parkinson’s disease risk in some people
May 26, 2018 - Study finds link between lead exposure and fertility rates
May 26, 2018 - Causes and treatment of acute heart failure vary by region, registry shows
May 26, 2018 - Delivery of standardized diabetes care could help achieve equitable health outcomes for all patients
May 26, 2018 - FDA authorizes marketing of OsteoDetect software for detecting wrist fractures
May 26, 2018 - HSE experts suggest new way of looking at infantilism
May 26, 2018 - Children and adolescents growing up in extreme societal conditions more likely to resort to violence
May 26, 2018 - New study puts forth most comprehensive tree of life for malaria parasites
May 26, 2018 - UVA researchers establish new guidelines for explorers of the submicroscopic world inside us
May 26, 2018 - Princeton Instruments and C-SOPS announce collaboration on innovative pharmaceutical technology
Scientists show how diaper phantoms can improve tumor measurements

Scientists show how diaper phantoms can improve tumor measurements

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Catching cancer early can make all the difference for successful treatment. A common screening practice measures tumor growth with X-ray computed tomography (CT), which takes a series of cross-section images of the body.

Before they are used in clinics, researchers test multiple CT imaging techniques with standard objects called “phantoms,” designed to mimic real tumors. Phantoms allow researchers to simulate a typical cancer screening in the lab, and predict how accurately real tumors will be measured by a particular technique.

However, the complex shapes and fuzzy boundaries of real tumors have been difficult to capture in a tumor phantom, typically made of 3-D printed plastic. In pursuit of a better phantom for improved tumor measurements, scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hit upon an effective but unconventional solution: injecting water into disposable diapers.

“It may sound strange, but it turns out that water in a disposable diaper closely resembles the structure of a tumor in tissue,” explained NIST physicist Zachary Levine, the lead author of a new report published in the NIST Journal of Research. “Moreover, we can grow these tumors just like real ones, by simply adding more water.”

These ordinary ingredients could help resolve a decade-long question about the best way of interpreting CT images: When tracking tumor growth, is it better to measure length or volume?

The length approach is part of a widely used standard called RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), originally proposed in 2000. Using RECIST, a tumor’s size is determined by its largest measured length in any CT slice. A change in size is simply a change in this length. This method comes from early X-ray CT, when two-dimensional images were rendered onto film and various features measured by hand.

Volumetric measurement, on the other hand, combines all the two-dimensional slices to form a three-dimensional volume. Hidden structures can be revealed by looking for boundaries within this volume. This approach is relatively new, and researchers are still figuring out how accurate it is at measuring tumor mass compared to other techniques.

To compare the two methods, the NIST team loaded multiple diapers with a small initial volume of water and imaged each diaper with X-ray CT. They then repeatedly injected more water and re-scanned each diaper, weighing them before and after to precisely determine the amount of water added. Then they estimated the water mass at each step using both volumetric measurements and RECIST.

With the improved diaper phantoms, the volumetric approach came out on top, outperforming RECIST by at least a factor of five in estimating the mass for each phantom. These experimental results suggest that for real tumors, measuring the volume could be a more reliable predictor of mass than the RECIST length.

“The hope is that in the next review of RECIST, this body of work will help to show that volumetric measurements are convincingly better,” said Levine. Adopting more accurate methods could enable physicians to screen for tumors even earlier, and quickly determine if a particular treatment is working.

Source:

https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2017/11/how-disposable-diapers-can-improve-measurements-tumor-growth

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles