Breaking News
February 17, 2019 - MUSC researchers discover new mechanism for a class of anti-cancer drugs
February 17, 2019 - HPV misconceptions are causing women to miss smear tests
February 17, 2019 - Sanofi and Regeneron Offer Praluent (alirocumab) at a New Reduced U.S. List Price
February 17, 2019 - Researchers say auditory testing can identify children for autism screening
February 17, 2019 - New method analyzes how single biological cells react to stressful situations
February 17, 2019 - WVU gynecologic oncologist investigates novel treatment for cervical and vaginal cancers
February 17, 2019 - ADHD diagnoses poorly documented
February 17, 2019 - Majority of gender minority youth do not identify with traditional sexual identity labels
February 17, 2019 - AbbVie, Teneobio enter into strategic transaction to develop potential treatment for multiple myeloma
February 17, 2019 - Lower Birth Weight May Up Risk for Psychiatric Disorders
February 17, 2019 - Scientists identify reversible molecular defect underlying rheumatoid arthritis
February 17, 2019 - Moffitt researchers shed light on how CAR T cells function mechanistically
February 16, 2019 - Female Anatomy May Play Big Role in Sperm’s Success
February 16, 2019 - BMI may mediate inverse link between fiber intake, knee OA
February 16, 2019 - Movement impairments in autism can be reversed through behavioral training
February 16, 2019 - Studies address racial disparities in postpartum period and cardiovascular health
February 16, 2019 - Scientists implicate hidden genes in the severity of autism symptoms
February 16, 2019 - Decreased deep sleep linked to early signs of Alzheimer’s disease
February 16, 2019 - Neuroscientists show how the brain responds to texture
February 16, 2019 - Gilead Announces Topline Data From Phase 3 STELLAR-4 Study of Selonsertib in Compensated Cirrhosis (F4) Due to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
February 16, 2019 - What Can I Do About Sweating? (for Teens)
February 16, 2019 - Companies navigate dementia conversations with older workers
February 16, 2019 - Newly developed stem cell technologies show promise for treating PD patients
February 16, 2019 - Collaborative material research could advance self-assembling nanomaterials
February 16, 2019 - Researchers take major step in creating technology that mimics the human brain
February 16, 2019 - Erasing memories associated with cocaine use reduces drug seeking behavior
February 16, 2019 - Artificial intelligence can accurately predict prognosis of ovarian cancer patients
February 16, 2019 - Racial disparities in cancer deaths on the decline for America
February 16, 2019 - FDA authorizes new interoperable insulin pump for children, adults with diabetes
February 16, 2019 - Coexisting Medical Conditions, Smoking Explain PTSD-CVD Link
February 16, 2019 - Skin Cancer Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
February 16, 2019 - ‘Happiness’ exercises can boost mood in those recovering from substance use disorder
February 16, 2019 - Cell manipulation could soon halt or reverse aging
February 16, 2019 - Pumped Breast Milk Falls Short of Breastfed Version
February 16, 2019 - Men’s porn habits could fuel partners’ eating disorders, study suggests
February 16, 2019 - Rapid progression of age-related diseases may result from formation of vicious cycles
February 16, 2019 - Immune checkpoint molecule protects against future development of cancer
February 16, 2019 - New method produces hydrogels that have properties similar to cells’ environment
February 16, 2019 - $4.1 million funding for heart research on Valentine’s Day
February 16, 2019 - General anesthesia in early infancy unlikely to have lasting effects on developing brains
February 16, 2019 - New breakthroughs for muscular dystrophy research
February 16, 2019 - First Opinion: Embryo editing for higher IQ is a fantasy. Embryo profiling for it is almost here
February 16, 2019 - Vapers develop cancer-related gene deregulation as cigarette smokers
February 16, 2019 - Bringing Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) to the Community
February 16, 2019 - Decolonization protocol after hospital discharge can prevent dangerous infections
February 16, 2019 - Children with ASD more likely to face maltreatment, study finds
February 16, 2019 - Study finds genetic vulnerability to use of menthol cigarettes
February 16, 2019 - H-RT should be the standard of care for men with low risk prostate cancer, study shows
February 16, 2019 - New technique using patients’ own modified cells could help treat Crohn’s disease
February 16, 2019 - Therapeutic endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of IBD
February 16, 2019 - Blood clot discovery could lead to development of better treatments for blood diseases
February 16, 2019 - Intervention can increase exclusive breastfeeding rates
February 16, 2019 - New project explores how gaming technologies can help cancer patients communicate better
February 16, 2019 - Catalyst Biosciences Presents Updated Data from Its Phase 2/3 Trial of Subcutaneous Marzeptacog Alfa (Activated) in Individuals with Hemophilia A or B with Inhibitors at the 12th Annual EAHAD Congress
February 16, 2019 - Rerouting nerves during amputation reduces phantom limb pain before it starts
February 16, 2019 - A Hormone Produced When We Exercise Might Help Fight Alzheimer’s
February 16, 2019 - Millions of British people breathe toxic air travelling to GPs
February 16, 2019 - Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft
February 16, 2019 - Researchers use optogenetic tool to control, visualize receptor signals in neural cells
February 16, 2019 - New reversible antiplatelet therapy could reduce risk of blood clots, prevent cancer metastasis
February 16, 2019 - Testosterone is not the only hormone needed for penis development
February 16, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Spravato (esketamine) Nasal Spray for Adults with Treatment-Resistant Depression
February 15, 2019 - Heart surgery technology developed at Baptist Health debuts after years of secrecy
February 15, 2019 - Prescription Opioids Double Risk of Triggering Fatal Car Crash
February 15, 2019 - New study helps doctors better understand high blood pressure in pregnant women
February 15, 2019 - Beta wave control in Parkinson’s diseased brain could be a potential therapy
February 15, 2019 - Media representations of love may justify gender-based violence in young people
February 15, 2019 - Yoga May Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms, Severity
February 15, 2019 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
February 15, 2019 - Master your mind: A challenge from WELL for Life
February 15, 2019 - Why Some Brain Tumors Respond to Immunotherapy
February 15, 2019 - Must-Reads Of The Week From Brianna Labuskes
February 15, 2019 - Researchers uncover novel mechanism and potential new therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s
February 15, 2019 - Genetic variations in a fourth gene associated with higher ALL risk in Hispanic children
February 15, 2019 - Disruptive behavioral problems in kindergarten linked with lower employment earnings in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - New bioengineered device enhances the production of T-cells
February 15, 2019 - HDL proteome behaves like a tiny Velcro ball that is rolling on surfaces
February 15, 2019 - Puerto Rican children more likely to have poor or decreasing use of asthma inhalers
February 15, 2019 - Quality of patient care does not improve after physician-hospital integration
February 15, 2019 - Synopsys release new software for implant design and patient-specific planning
Lamprey genes provide clues to repair spinal cord damage, finds study

Lamprey genes provide clues to repair spinal cord damage, finds study

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers have found that several genes within an ancient species of fish can be used to provide clues in the treatment of spinal cord damage. The study titled, “Highly Conserved Molecular Pathways, Including Wnt Signaling, Promote Functional Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in Lampreys,” appeared in the latest issue of the journal Scientific Reports.

River lamprey. Image Credit: Krot44 / Shutterstock

River lamprey. Image Credit: Krot44 / Shutterstock

The American researchers have noted that several of these ancient genes are involved in the peripheral nervous system of mammals. The study was led by researchers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) of the Eugene Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering, and the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research. The team obtained protein making profiles in the genetic coding of the lamprey fish spinal cords and brains after they created a spinal cord injury (SCI). They used a sequencer called the RNA-Seq to check the changes that occurred in the genes after the injury in the fish.

Jennifer Morgan, Ph.D., director of the MBL’s Eugene Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering and co-author of the study explained that several genes that were found in the fish to change the transcription profiles were found to be overlapping with the mammalian genes. These genes help in the regeneration of the mammalian peripheral nervous system.

Most mammals can only regenerate their peripheral nervous systems after injury. Some of the fish such as lampreys and other animals such as reptiles and amphibians are capable of spontaneously regenerate following spinal cord injury say researchers. Lampreys especially are adept at regenerating even a completely severed spinal cord and resume swimming without any treatment. Morgan explains that they can go to complete swimming from complete paralysis ina period of 10 to 12 weeks. Humans have diverged from these jawless eel like fish from their ancestors around 550 million years back say the authors.

Ona Bloom, Ph.D., at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research and the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell said that the scientific world was aware of the regeneration capacity of the lampreys but was not aware of how they were doing it. The molecular level mechanism was not clear. These genes have now been found to exist in the mammals too. Some of these include those for, “axon guidance and regeneration, synaptic transmission, neural patterning and neurodegeneration.” The authors find that the lamprey central nervous system us analogous to humans and other vertebrates that have jaws unlike the lampreys.

For this study the team obsevered the genetic workings of the lampreys after their spinal cords were severed. They took their observations at several points including ones within hours after injury, until the fish had completely recovered at the end of 3 months. They noted that genes changed with the time as the regeneration progressed to completion. The changes in the transcription genes were also seen in the brains they noted. “One of the most surprising findings from this study is the robust and complex transcriptional responses occurring in the lamprey brain after SCI,” authors write. In fact at the time of recovery, they noted 238 newly formed and expressed transcripts in the spinal cord and 88 new transcripts in the brain. Morgan explains that this shows that the brain and spinal cord changes during regeneration process significantly.

The team also found that 3 percent of these new transcripts were from the Wnt pathways. These belong to the “Wnt and Frizzled gene families,” the researchers add. These 19 mammalian Wnt genes are seen commonly among many animal species they say. These pathways have been shown to play a role in spinal injury. Zebrafish and salamanders have been shown to use this pathway for regeneration in previous experiments. Morgan said that when they stopped these Wnt signaling pathway using certain drugs, the lampreys could not recover from their spinal injury and could not swim again. The reason why this pathway works how it does is what the team is studying now.

Source:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18757-1

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles