Breaking News
April 18, 2019 - Study uncovers new biomarker for personalized cancer treatments
April 18, 2019 - Scientists enter research collaboration to find a cure for cancer
April 18, 2019 - Study to compare benefits of tai chi and mindfulness meditation on MS symptoms
April 18, 2019 - Gestational diabetes during pregnancy may increase risk of type 1 diabetes in children
April 18, 2019 - Is a New Remedy for Body Odor on the Horizon?
April 18, 2019 - Orthostatic hypotension – Genetics Home Reference
April 18, 2019 - Healing the heartbreak of stillbirth and newborn death
April 18, 2019 - Conference to highlight advances in human immune monitoring, bioinformatics | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Bacteria use viruses for self-recognition, study reveals
April 18, 2019 - New adhesive patch could help reduce post-heart attack muscle damage
April 18, 2019 - Researchers analyze the effects of dark play in a serious video game
April 18, 2019 - Filial cannibalism and offspring abandonment may be forms of parental care
April 18, 2019 - Two proteins act in concert to maintain a healthy heart in mice, shows study
April 18, 2019 - Scientists create a functioning 3D printed heart
April 18, 2019 - Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation improves disease symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
April 18, 2019 - Majority of men struggle to understand diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
April 18, 2019 - Researchers create new small molecules that may combat equine encephalitis viruses
April 18, 2019 - Animal-assisted therapy improves social behavior in patients with brain injuries
April 18, 2019 - Some viruses help protect harmful bacteria in CF patients | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Outpatient healthcare providers inappropriately prescribe antibiotics to 40% of patients
April 18, 2019 - Men who have a resting heart rate of 75 bpm are twice as likely to die early
April 18, 2019 - Novel serum biomarkers to detect NAFLD-related fibrosis
April 18, 2019 - New study delves deeper into individual genomic differences than ever before
April 18, 2019 - Gilead and Galapagos Announce Filgotinib Meets Primary Endpoint in the Phase 3 FINCH 3 Study in Methotrexate-Naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
April 18, 2019 - Emotional mirror neurons found in rats
April 18, 2019 - Sylvia Plevritis appointed chair of biomedical data science | News Center
April 18, 2019 - Yeast strain provides manufacturing boost to low-calorie sweetener derived from lactose
April 18, 2019 - C-Path and CDISC release global Therapeutic Area Standard for HIV research
April 18, 2019 - Integrating AI to analyze imaging data allows early recognition of heart disease
April 18, 2019 - Low-cost, high-speed algorithm may allow animal-free chemical toxicity testing
April 18, 2019 - HPV-negative cervical cancers are more aggressive with worse prognosis
April 18, 2019 - AI detects prostate cancer with same level of accuracy as experienced radiologists
April 18, 2019 - Study resolves sex differences in psychiatric illness risk
April 18, 2019 - Novartis Announces FDA Filing Acceptance and Priority Review of Brolucizumab (RTH258) for Patients with Wet AMD
April 18, 2019 - Cocktail of common antibiotics can fight resistant E. coli
April 18, 2019 - Persis Drell to give keynote address at medical school diploma ceremony | News Center
April 18, 2019 - EpicTogether: Remembering Our Why
April 18, 2019 - Study identifies novel loci contributing to asthma susceptibility in adults
April 18, 2019 - Gut bacteria and pregnancy
April 18, 2019 - New study finds that screening could help prevent rare types of cervical cancer
April 17, 2019 - Spatial orgnization of the genome can be altered using small molecules
April 17, 2019 - AEDs Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Patients
April 17, 2019 - Telemedicine tied to more antibiotics for kids, study finds
April 17, 2019 - Two medical students awarded 2019 Soros Fellowships for New Americans | News Center
April 17, 2019 - Sociologist Constance A. Nathanson Awarded Guggenheim Fellowship
April 17, 2019 - Empathy and hormones could account for aggressive behavior in children, shows study
April 17, 2019 - Researchers develop oral appliance to help sufferers of sleep apnea
April 17, 2019 - Neuronal transport factor detects its target transcripts in more complex manner than previously thought
April 17, 2019 - New drug-delivery system senses high oxidant levels, responds to body chemistry and environment
April 17, 2019 - Health Tip: Horseback Trail Riding Safety
April 17, 2019 - Scientists outline the promises and pitfalls of machine learning in medicine
April 17, 2019 - $12 million grant renewal for flu vaccine research | News Center
April 17, 2019 - Lisa Kachnic, MD, Joins Columbia University as Chair of Radiation Oncology
April 17, 2019 - New study sheds light on how extreme temperature hampers spermatogenesis in insects
April 17, 2019 - Study tests high-tech, non-pharmaceutical way to address ADHD and distractibility
April 17, 2019 - New EZ-2 evaporator for clinical biochemistry sample preparation
April 17, 2019 - Fat shaming celebrities may make women more judgemental about being overweight
April 17, 2019 - Magic mouthwash effectively reduces mouth sore pain caused by radiation therapy
April 17, 2019 - CBD could help slip medications into the brain
April 17, 2019 - Scientists characterize 2017 pneumonic plague outbreak in Madagascar
April 17, 2019 - Human iPSC-derived MSCs from aged individuals acquire a rejuvenation signature
April 17, 2019 - Gun Research Is Suddenly Hot
April 17, 2019 - Employee wellness programs provide little health benefits
April 17, 2019 - Cannabis users could be more tolerant to anesthesia agents
April 17, 2019 - Study suggests new approach to treat renal fibrosis
April 17, 2019 - Green roofs may improve indoor air quality, study shows
April 17, 2019 - Selumetinib Granted U.S. Breakthrough Therapy Designation in Neurofibromatosis Type 1
April 17, 2019 - Fasting-mimicking diet holds promise for treating people with inflammatory bowel disease
April 17, 2019 - Daily cannabis use significantly higher among individuals with serious psychological distress
April 17, 2019 - Victims of bullying have greater chances of mental health problems, unemployment in later life
April 17, 2019 - Strategies to achieve greater vaccination coverage throughout Europe
April 17, 2019 - Online atlas created to identify, classify protein signatures present at AML diagnosis
April 17, 2019 - £1.8 million award to boost Crohn’s disease research
April 17, 2019 - Oxytocin blocks excess drinking in alcohol-dependent rats
April 17, 2019 - Rutgers researchers identify new factor essential for maintaining stem cells in the brain and gut
April 17, 2019 - Universal late pregnancy ultrasound improves health of mothers, babies and could be cost saving
April 17, 2019 - Cosmo Pharmaceuticals Announces Submission of Remimazolam NDA to FDA
April 17, 2019 - Stopping inflammation from becoming chronic
April 17, 2019 - Planned Parenthood’s ‘Risky Strategy’ To Update Its Image
April 17, 2019 - Common sleep myths may pose a significant public health threat
Researchers identify new treatment targets for lung diseases using big data

Researchers identify new treatment targets for lung diseases using big data

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Every year, approximately 12 million adults in the U.S. are diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and 120,000 die from it. For people with COPD, Haemophilus influenzae, a bacterium, can be particularly dangerous.

The microbe can reside in their lungs and wreak havoc within already weakened organs. Identifying the genetic variations of this microbe is vital to treating these patients effectively.

Now, a University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) researcher teamed up with researchers at the University of Buffalo and Yale University to better understand how the bacterium adapts quickly, which may open new avenues for therapy for COPD patients. The new findings, which relied on genomic analysis, may also be useful for people who have other diseases such as ear infections or pneumonia, since this microbe can cause these diseases as well.

The research was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“The question we asked was why are certain strains of the bacterium are so much more dangerous than others. We discovered a genetic pattern, which helps explain why certain strains are so virulent,” said Hervé Tettelin, PhD, associate professor of microbiology and immunology at the Institute for Genome Sciences (IGS) at UMSOM. “This offers key clues about what this microbe does to evolve in the lungs of people with COPD, and it may open exciting new avenues for treatments and vaccines for the future.” Dr. Tettelin oversaw the genomic data mining with the isolates.

He collaborated with Timothy Murphy, MD, senior associate dean for clinical and translational research and professor at the University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Melinda Pettigrew, PhD, senior associate dean for academic affairs and a professor of epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health. Over 20 years, Dr. Murphy has collected thousands of strains from COPD patients.

Some strains of the bacteria are more dangerous than others. The level of lethality depends in part on which genes get turned on, and which are turned off. Certain patterns allow the bacteria to adapt more efficiently to the lungs, allowing it to cause more damage.

With data mining, the researchers detected certain patterns of genetic activation or inactivation. With this information, the researchers say they may be able to develop new treatments and new vaccines. “We now have a much better understanding of how certain strains of the bacterium adapt to the lungs,” said Dr. Murphy.

The team studied the genomic isolates from distinct time periods: what the isolates look like when Haemophilus is acquired by a patient, and how they look when they’re about to be cleared out of the lungs. The researchers learned that there is evidence of adaptation. H. influenzae uses mechanisms to vary its genome and the proteins it uses to interact with the host.

Interestingly, much of the variation appears to be random. In the bacterium, a subset of genes are randomly turning off and on constantly. Some of these mutations are useful to the microbe, while some are not. Those that work are conserved, while those that fail do not survive. Essentially, the bacterium undergoes a constant state of evolution.

These findings are important for vaccine researchers. This kind of data mining helps researchers more precisely identify better vaccine candidates, which can lead to better treatments for COPD patients.

Source:

http://www.medschool.umaryland.edu/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles