Breaking News
January 24, 2019 - FDA authorizes marketing of new test to aid in the diagnosis of M. gen. infections
January 24, 2019 - Health Tip: Simple CPR – Drugs.com MedNews
January 24, 2019 - Diabetes in America, 3rd Edition
January 24, 2019 - Bangladesh ‘Tree Man’ returns to hospital as condition worsens
January 24, 2019 - Costs of gun-related hospitalizations, readmissions examined in study
January 24, 2019 - Good health literacy linked to better adherence to blood pressure medications among Hispanics
January 24, 2019 - Only a minority of patients in the U.S. with type 1 diabetes achieve treatment goals
January 24, 2019 - High fat reduces efficiency of the immune system to fight infectious disease
January 24, 2019 - FDA grants clearance to Hologic’s assay for detection of common sexually transmitted infections
January 24, 2019 - Study highlights need for reliable therapeutic targets for prevention, treatment of cardiovascular diseases
January 24, 2019 - Next step toward replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes
January 24, 2019 - “Scientific serendipity” identifies link between type of RNA and autism
January 24, 2019 - Trump Zeroes In On Surprise Medical Bills In White House Chat With Patients, Experts
January 24, 2019 - Unique form of chronic sinusitis found in older patients
January 24, 2019 - NUS researchers make muscle recovery easier for patients with ingenious medical device
January 24, 2019 - Specific cognitive deficits found in individuals with spinal cord injury
January 24, 2019 - An essential reference for diagnostic ultrasonography and biopsy of the thyroid gland
January 24, 2019 - Proteus Digital Health Launches Digital Oncology Medicines to Improve Patient Outcomes
January 24, 2019 - Study looking to prevent type 1 diabetes follows children into adolescence
January 24, 2019 - Nice doctors make a difference
January 23, 2019 - Blood vessel discovery could advance our knowledge of osteoporosis
January 23, 2019 - New esophageal cancer test uses genetic biomarkers to detect changes in esophagal cells
January 23, 2019 - Study evaluates first-ever Robotic Visualization System for neurosurgery
January 23, 2019 - Scientists reveal new mechanism that could lead to specific treatment of strokes and seizures
January 23, 2019 - Both educational level and occupational orientation predict mother’s smoking during pregnancy
January 23, 2019 - How to (gently) get your child to brush their teeth
January 23, 2019 - Short-term hospital readmissions for gun injuries cost $86 million a year | News Center
January 23, 2019 - New certified reference material for testing residual solvents in cannabis
January 23, 2019 - Gene-edited chickens could prevent future flu pandemic
January 23, 2019 - Cardiovascular disease risk begins even before birth
January 23, 2019 - Younger patients receiving kidney transplant more likely to live longer, shows data
January 23, 2019 - Skin samples hold early signs of prion disease, research suggests
January 23, 2019 - Researchers discover how body initiates repair mechanisms that limits damage to myelin sheath
January 23, 2019 - Fecal transplant from certain donors better than others
January 23, 2019 - Risk for Uninsurance in AMI Patients Reduced With Medicaid Expansion
January 23, 2019 - Readmissions reduction program may be associated with increase in patient-level mortality
January 23, 2019 - Fostering translation and communication in medicine and beyond
January 23, 2019 - To Fight Fatty Liver, Avoid Sugary Foods and Drinks
January 23, 2019 - TPU scientists develop new implants that double the rate of bone lengthening in kids
January 23, 2019 - New sessions at Pittcon 2019
January 23, 2019 - Insilico to present latest findings in AI for Drug Discovery at 3rd Annual SABPA FTD Forum
January 23, 2019 - Opioid overdose patients can be safely discharged an hour after administration of naloxone
January 23, 2019 - Scientists find bacterial extracellular vesicles in human blood
January 23, 2019 - Researchers use modified type of flu virus to develop new therapies for prostate cancer
January 23, 2019 - Researchers gain new insights into development of necrotizing enterocolitis in preemies
January 23, 2019 - Medical expert advises people with epilepsy not to stockpile medicines
January 23, 2019 - CDC study explores link between smoking and clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technology
January 23, 2019 - Study outlines research priorities for improving pediatric patient care and safety
January 23, 2019 - Bedfont to exhibit NObreath FeNO monitor at Arab Health 2019
January 23, 2019 - Nicotinamide riboside supplementation confers significant physiological benefits to mothers and offspring
January 23, 2019 - Increasing temperatures may help preserve crop nutrition
January 23, 2019 - Many Oncologists in the Dark About LGBTQ Health Needs
January 23, 2019 - Epigenetic change causes fruit fly babies to inherit diet-induced heart disease
January 23, 2019 - Erasing memories could reduce relapse rates among drug addicts
January 23, 2019 - African Americans who smoke cigarettes are more likely to develop peripheral artery disease
January 23, 2019 - Unique data combination helps FinnGen researchers to fund links between genetic factors and health
January 23, 2019 - Parents’ mental health problems associated with reactive attachment disorder in children
January 23, 2019 - Graphene Flagship project studies impact of graphene and related materials on our health
January 23, 2019 - The connection between the Pope and contraceptive pills
January 23, 2019 - Prior dengue infection could protect children from symptomatic Zika
January 23, 2019 - Previous dengue virus infection associated with protection from symptomatic Zika
January 23, 2019 - VISTA checkpoint implicated in pancreatic cancer immunotherapy resistance
January 23, 2019 - The Tiny Camera That Could Revolutionize Cardiovascular Surgery
January 23, 2019 - Peptide isolated from soil fungi has antitumor and antibacterial properties
January 23, 2019 - TGen identifies polio-like virus as potential cause of Acute Flaccid Myelitis outbreak
January 23, 2019 - Migrants and refugees do not bring disease and are at greater health risk themselves says WHO
January 23, 2019 - Examing the effects of menopause in workplace
January 23, 2019 - Enemy number 1 – Air pollution and climate change top of WHO agenda
January 23, 2019 - Two Positive Phase III studies of Tafenoquine for the Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Published in The New England Journal of Medicine
January 23, 2019 - World Trade Center responders at increased risk for head and neck cancers
January 23, 2019 - Low-sugar diet leads to significant improvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in boys
January 23, 2019 - Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system, finds study
January 23, 2019 - Short, text-based exercises can increase happiness for adults recovering from substance use disorders
January 23, 2019 - Body size may have greater influence on women’s lifespan than men
January 23, 2019 - Groundbreaking tool helps visualize neuronal activity with near-infrared light
January 23, 2019 - Prior dengue immunity in children may be protective against symptomatic Zika
January 23, 2019 - Holocaust survivors with PTSD and their offspring exhibit more unhealthy behavior patterns
January 23, 2019 - Scientists discover new genetic mutations causing inherited deaf-blindness
January 23, 2019 - UC team designs new naloxone-dispensing smart device
January 23, 2019 - Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Losartan Potassium Tablets, USP and Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets, USP
Study proposes new mechanism that may contribute to gender differences in weight control

Study proposes new mechanism that may contribute to gender differences in weight control

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

For years, scientists have observed that when male and female mice eat the same high-fat diet, the males gain significantly more weight than the females. The reasons for this difference between sexes are not completely understood, but a new study published in the journal Nature Communications proposes that part of the answer may be in the brain.

“One of my research goals is to better understand the role the brain plays in body weight control,” said senior author Dr. Yong Xu, associate professor of pediatrics and of molecular and cellular biology and the USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital. “In this study we propose a novel mechanism that may contribute to this difference between sexes.”

It’s been proposed that two main factors are likely to be involved in gender differences in body weight control; the sex chromosomes and the sex hormones. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, and females have two X chromosomes, but scientists understand very little about which genes on the sex chromosomes contribute to this issue. Males’ major sex hormone is testosterone, and females have high levels of estrogen and progesterone in their blood. Scientists agree that these hormones probably play a main role in regulating body weight.

“Differences in sex chromosomes and in sex hormones are important, but we have always wondered whether there is a third group of factors that may also contribute to the sex differences in the ability to regulate body weight,” Xu said. “We think ours is among the first studies looking at the brain to understand weight control differences between males and females.”

A closer look at the weight control center of the brain

Previous work had shown that the brain has several neuron populations that are very important for weight control. In this study, Xu and his colleagues determined whether these populations were different between male and female mice.

“One of the most important functions of all neurons is firing electrical signals. That’s how neurons talk to each other and to other tissues,” Xu said. “We compared the firing rate of many types of neurons between males and females and found a few that fired differently. We focused on one type, called POMC neurons, located in the hypothalamus.”

“POMC neurons in the hypothalamus help maintain normal body weight by inhibiting appetite and promoting energy expenditure in response to chronic high fat diet feeding,” said first author Dr. Chunmei Wang, an instructor in the Xu lab.

“We tested the firing rate of POMC neurons using electrophysiological techniques,” said first author Dr. Yanlin He, postdoctoral associate in the Xu lab. “Our results show that female POMC neurons fire faster than male neurons.”

But why do female POMC neurons fire faster than male’s? Xu and his colleagues screened POMC neurons for gene expression and found many genes that are expressed differently between males and females. One of the genes, TAp63, is expressed more in females than in males.

“We know from previous work that when we knock out the gene TAp63 in the entire body of a mouse, the animal becomes obese,” Xu said. “Here, we knocked out the gene only in POMC neurons and strikingly, this change did not affect male mice. On the other hand, female mice developed male-like obesity.”

Knocking out TAp63 not only affected weight control in females, it also decreased the firing activity of female POMC neurons to the level of male’s. Knocking out TAp63 in males, however, did not affect the firing rate of their POMC neurons.

These findings led the researchers to propose a novel mechanism that may contribute to sex differences in weight control. Female POMC neurons express higher levels of TAp63, which leads the neurons to fire faster than males. This results in the females having less appetite, spending more energy and therefore being more protected than males from gaining weight. The researchers think that these results may facilitate the future development of gender-specific therapeutic strategies for obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

“We think that our findings suggest that, in addition to studying chromosome and hormonal differences between males and females, scientists should also pay attention to this third category of factors,” Xu said. “We hope our study will encourage other researchers to continue investigating this line of research.”

Source:

https://www.bcm.edu/news/womens-health/why-is-it-harder-for-females-to-gain-weight

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles