Breaking News
October 21, 2018 - Fertility Rates Down for Each Urbanization Level 2007 to 2017
October 21, 2018 - Genetically engineered 3-D human muscle transplant in a murine model
October 21, 2018 - Moms’ tight work schedules may affect their children’s sleep
October 21, 2018 - AHA: No Direct Link Between Preeclampsia and Cognitive Impairment, Study Finds
October 21, 2018 - Weight loss success linked with active self-control regions of the brain
October 21, 2018 - Scripps researchers successfully test potential new smoking-cessation treatment in rodents
October 21, 2018 - More accurate and less stressful way to measure a baby’s heartbeat
October 21, 2018 - Researchers show better cardiorespiratory fitness leads to longer life
October 21, 2018 - Healthy candies for diabetic patients
October 21, 2018 - Environment impact of microplastics remains unclear
October 21, 2018 - Antibiotics for appendicitis? Surgery often not needed
October 21, 2018 - AHA and AMA recognize more than 800 medical practices, health systems for blood pressure control
October 21, 2018 - Scientists obtain clearest ever image of Ebola virus protein
October 21, 2018 - Study reveals connection between two proteins known to be hyperactive in cancer
October 21, 2018 - Gabapentin Beats Pregabalin for Chronic Sciatica
October 21, 2018 - Cosmetic surgeons offering incomplete information for breast augmentation customers
October 21, 2018 - Chronic sleep disruption in early adult life accelerates AD-related tau pathology
October 21, 2018 - Take 10 for Mindfulness – Drugs.com MedNews
October 21, 2018 - Length of breathing disruption in OSA may be better predictor of mortality risk
October 21, 2018 - ApoE4 gene linked with chronic inflammation increases risk for Alzheimer’s disease
October 21, 2018 - Mother-daughter conflict associated with suicide risk in abused adolescent girls
October 21, 2018 - Scientists molding bacteria into unnatural shapes
October 21, 2018 - High diet quality associated with lower risk of death in colorectal cancer patients
October 21, 2018 - Discharged mental health patients ‘at greater risk of dying’
October 21, 2018 - Research provides insight into neurobiology of aggression and bullying
October 21, 2018 - As billions in tax dollars flow to private Medicaid plans, Who’s minding the store?
October 21, 2018 - Neuroscientists identify brain region that appears to be related to food preference decisions
October 21, 2018 - Deaths related to air pollution in the U.S. decreased by 47% between 1990 and 2010
October 21, 2018 - Study shows correlation between spatial memory and the sense of smell
October 21, 2018 - Increased cardiorespiratory fitness associated with reduced long-term mortality
October 21, 2018 - IU researchers receive $1.55 million from NIH to improve chronic-disease management
October 21, 2018 - Income and wealth affect the mental health of Australians, study shows
October 21, 2018 - Patients with hypertension and psoriasis more often require cardiovascular interventions
October 20, 2018 - Leading hip-hop videos depict use of tobacco and marijuana products, study finds
October 20, 2018 - Dose Range of IV Ketamine for Adjunct Tx of Depression Tested
October 20, 2018 - Infants can distinguish between leaders and bullies, study finds
October 20, 2018 - Mad Cow disease found on Aberdeenshire farm
October 20, 2018 - Study identifies factors associated with prescription opioid misuse among students
October 20, 2018 - Scientists uncover key regulator of mTORC1 in cancer growth
October 20, 2018 - Pounds Regained After Weight-Loss Op Can Tell Your Doc a Lot
October 20, 2018 - Sending parents letters to fight childhood obesity doesn’t work
October 20, 2018 - Supervised aerobic exercise can support major depression treatment
October 20, 2018 - Mindfulness-based program effective for reducing stress in infertile women
October 20, 2018 - Molecule capable of halting and reverting neurodegeneration caused by Parkinson’s disease identified
October 20, 2018 - Midazolam-mediated alterations of PER2 expression may have functional consequences during myocardial ischemia
October 20, 2018 - Sweat bees are ideal for studying the genes underlying social behavior
October 20, 2018 - Weight loss success associated with brain areas involved in self-control
October 20, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Republicans’ preexisting political problem
October 20, 2018 - Research provides a more complete picture of suffering caused by terrorist attacks
October 20, 2018 - Eradicating Helicobacter pylori infections may be a key treatment for Parkinson’s disease
October 20, 2018 - Breast Cancer as a Dynamic Disease
October 20, 2018 - University of Pittsburgh wins NSF grant for big data research to prevent complications from anesthesia
October 20, 2018 - Skin-to-skin contact may promote attachment between parents and preterm infants
October 20, 2018 - Recommendations Developed to Verify NGT Placement in Children
October 20, 2018 - Weight loss can be boosted fivefold thanks to novel mental imagery technique
October 20, 2018 - Children with autism are more likely to be overweight, obese
October 20, 2018 - Nurses making conscientious objections to ethically-relevant policies lack support
October 20, 2018 - Prion strain diversity may be greater than previously thought
October 20, 2018 - Antidepressant treatment may lead to improvements in sleep quality of patients with depression
October 20, 2018 - Study reports increased risk of death in children with inflammatory bowel disease
October 20, 2018 - Number of Autism Genes Now Tops 100
October 20, 2018 - Total diet replacement programmes are effective for treating obesity
October 20, 2018 - CLARIOstar used for fluorescence measurements on CSIRO’s purpose-built research vessel
October 20, 2018 - People with more copies of AMY1 gene digest starchy carbohydrates faster
October 20, 2018 - Case Comprehensive Cancer Center wins NIH grant to study health disparities
October 20, 2018 - Newly discovered compound shows potential for treating Parkinson’s disease
October 20, 2018 - High rate of non-adherence to hormonal therapy found among premenopausal early breast cancer patients
October 20, 2018 - Immunotherapy medicine found to be effective in treating uveitis
October 20, 2018 - The Pistoia Alliance Calls for Greater Collaboration to Realise Benefits of Innovation and Announces Winners of the 2018 President’s Startup Challenge
October 20, 2018 - Female internists consistently earn less than men
October 20, 2018 - Stanford team looks at dangers of teens’ vaping habits
October 20, 2018 - New approach to understanding cancers will accelerate development of better treatments
October 20, 2018 - LJI and UC San Diego awarded $ 4.5 million as part of NCI’s Cancer Moonshot initiative
October 20, 2018 - School-based HPV vaccination did not increase risky sexual behaviors among adolescent girls
October 20, 2018 - Eye discovery to pave way for more successful corneal transplants
October 20, 2018 - New analysis examines the importance of location in the opioid crisis
October 20, 2018 - Green filters increase reading speed for children with dyslexia
October 19, 2018 - Bariatric Sx Cuts Macrovascular Complications in Obesity, T2DM
October 19, 2018 - Better assessments for early age-related macular degeneration
October 19, 2018 - Visible and valued: Stanford Medicine’s first-ever LGBTQ+ Forum | News Center
IU psychologist receives NIH grant to study earliest phases of language learning in children

IU psychologist receives NIH grant to study earliest phases of language learning in children

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

An Indiana University psychologist has been awarded $1.7 million from the National Institutes of Health to better understand the earliest phases of language learning in children.

The grant will support research on subjects such as the connection between where infants look at the moment their parent names an object during early-stage development, how many words they are learning, and other later outcomes like cognitive development, vocabulary size and success in school. Chen Yu, a professor in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Psychological and Brian Sciences, is leading the project.

“One problem that young children deal with in language learning is that they live in a world that is visually cluttered,” Yu said. “When they hear a label, there are so many objects in their environment that as language learners, they need to figure out what the label may refer to. What we want to understand is how they map what they hear to what they see in a cluttered environment.”

In previous studies, Yu’s computational cognition and learning lab found high amounts of variation in how clearly an object appeared in an infant’s field of vision at the moment their parent labeled it.

“Some naming moments were clear since the named object was visually dominant in the infant’s view; others were ambiguous since several objects were competing for the infant’s attention at the same time,” Yu said. “Moreover, some naming moments contained misleading information as the parent named object A while the infant visually attended to object B.”

To understand how young learners deal with different kinds of “naming moments,” IU researchers outfit infants with head-mounted cameras to measure the eye direction of their gaze as they play with a parent in a toy room. They then use data-mining techniques to infer the learner’s “state of knowledge” when exposed to different types of learning situations. Yayun Zhang, a Ph.D. student studying psychological and brain sciences and cognitive science at IU Bloomington, has conducted much of this work with parents and children.

Instead of using artificial stimuli or pictures on a screen — common methods in many experiments on language learning — the research conducted under the new grant will take a “naturalistic approach” in which video vignettes recorded from head-mounted cameras tracking an infant’s eye movement from their perspective will be played back and viewed by another group of young learners. This means that separate infants will individually view the same vignettes — collected in a naturalistic environment — after which their visual attention will be measured and analyzed.

“Even if they’re shown the same video vignette, different children will attend to different aspects of the scenes — and what they attend to is directly fed into their learning system,” Yu said. “We know in the real world there are many different situations. We’re taking data from the real world, but also controlling it in a scientifically systematic way to leverage the best of both worlds.”

Linda Smith, IU Distinguished Professor and Chancellor’s Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences, is co-investigator on the project. The study is a part of the “Learning: Brains, Machines and Children” initiative, a part of the Emerging Areas of Research program. Smith is the leader of the initiative, which aims to apply research on toddler learning to improving machine learning and artificial intelligence.

“This new grant focuses directly on one of the core questions in the Emerging Areas of Research: how learners generate their own data,” Smith said. “When an infant looks at a scene, they select a small portion of the available information for learning. Learners who can select just the right information, based on their own current state of knowledge, provide potentially important computational pathways for optimal learning.”

One of the primary goals for the new study is to compare individual differences among the infants’ information selection at the moment their parent names an object. To achieve good “naming moments,” Yu said parents and children need to work together.

“Even for the same age, some kids will get 50 words, while others may acquire 200 to 300,” Yu said. “Those who get more words are the children who attend to the right information at the right time when facing uncertainty and ambiguity in their learning environment.

“Children learn language in social context or in contact with their parents,” he added. “When they play with toys, they naturally create good naming moments. If parents let their child lead and name the object in that moment, it helps learning.”

He also noted their preliminary research has found that children who direct their course of play are significantly more successful at matching a label to the correct object.

“All this research shows that earlier language learning is predictive of later development and outcome of school achievement,” Yu said. “It’s really the starting point of development, and the goal of the project is to understand underlying cognitive processes that support early word learning.”

Source:

https://news.iu.edu/stories/2018/04/iub/03-visual-attention-and-language-learning.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles