Breaking News
December 15, 2018 - For the asking, a check is in the mail to help pay for costly drugs
December 15, 2018 - UA scientists uncover biological processes leading to rare brain disorder in babies
December 15, 2018 - The largest database on industrial poisons
December 15, 2018 - ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress showcases novel technologies set to benefit many cancer patients
December 15, 2018 - Ovid Therapeutics Announces Plans to Move into a Phase 3 Trial in Pediatric Patients Based on End-of-Phase 2 Meeting for OV101 in Angelman Syndrome
December 15, 2018 - Left ventricular noncompaction – Genetics Home Reference
December 15, 2018 - Children’s sleep not significantly affected by screen time, new study finds
December 15, 2018 - When should dementia patients stop driving? A new guidance for clinicians
December 15, 2018 - Researchers use INTEGRA’s VIAFLO 96/384 to streamline the experimental workflow
December 15, 2018 - Researchers discover protein involved in nematode stress response
December 15, 2018 - Cancer patients have greater risk of developing shingles, study shows
December 14, 2018 - UAlberta scientists identify biomarkers for detecting Alzheimer’s disease in saliva samples
December 14, 2018 - Study uncovers link between tube travel and spread of flu-like illnesses
December 14, 2018 - Caffeine plus another compound in coffee may fight Parkinson’s disease
December 14, 2018 - GW researchers review studies on treatments for prurigo nodularis
December 14, 2018 - Lack of peds preventive care ups unplanned hospital admissions
December 14, 2018 - Miscarriage: When Language Deepens Pain
December 14, 2018 - New method helps better understand pathological development of ALS
December 14, 2018 - Intellectually active lifestyle confers protection against neurodegeneration in Huntington’s patients
December 14, 2018 - Mammalian collagen nanofibrils become stronger and tougher with exercise
December 14, 2018 - Considerable Morbidity, Mortality Due to Animal Encounters
December 14, 2018 - Researchers find inhibiting one protein destroys toxic clumps seen in Parkinson’s disease
December 14, 2018 - How early physical therapy can lessen the long-term need for opioids
December 14, 2018 - Depression, suicide rates highest in Mountain West states
December 14, 2018 - New model could cure the potential to underestimate how quickly diseases spread
December 14, 2018 - Exercise-induced hormone activates cells critical for bone remodeling in mice
December 14, 2018 - Researchers discover new mechanism behind spread of malignant pleural mesothelioma
December 14, 2018 - Health Tip: Celebrate a Healthier Holiday
December 14, 2018 - Scalpel-free surgery enhances quality of life for Parkinson’s patients, study finds
December 14, 2018 - Early physical therapy can reduce risk, amount of long-term opioid use | News Center
December 14, 2018 - Genetic marker, predictor of early relapse in common childhood cancer discovered
December 14, 2018 - Study could lead to a potential new way of treating sepsis
December 14, 2018 - New protein complex helps embryonic stem cells to maintain their indefinite potential
December 14, 2018 - Salk professor receives $1.8 million from NOMIS Foundation for research on mechanisms to promote health
December 14, 2018 - New discovery will improve the safety and predictability of CRISPR
December 14, 2018 - Geneticists discover how sex-linked disorders arise
December 14, 2018 - New method to visualize small-molecule interactions inside cells
December 14, 2018 - Study describes mechanism that makes people more vulnerable to hunger-causing stimuli
December 14, 2018 - Chronic opioid therapy associated with increased healthcare spending and hospital stays
December 14, 2018 - Blood Types
December 14, 2018 - Obesity linked to increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer
December 14, 2018 - Blood test helps identify distinct molecular signatures in children with cystic fibrosis
December 14, 2018 - Scientists use water to track electrical activity of nerve cells
December 14, 2018 - Recurrence of urinary tract infection may depend on bacterial strain, study shows
December 14, 2018 - GBT Announces U.S. FDA Agrees with its Proposal Relating to Accelerated Approval Pathway for Voxelotor for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease and GBT Plans to Submit New Drug Application (NDA)
December 14, 2018 - Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
December 14, 2018 - Common tactics for health promotion at work may be detrimental to employees with obesity
December 14, 2018 - Myths about migration and health not supported by available evidence
December 14, 2018 - Recent findings on rare genetic disorder may help develop new treatment options
December 14, 2018 - New drug shows promise in treating sarcomas
December 14, 2018 - Scientists perform lung lavage as new approach for tuberculosis diagnosis in rhinoceros
December 14, 2018 - Answering the Biggest Neurological Research Questions of Today
December 14, 2018 - Recent winners of the Nobel Medicine Prize
December 14, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Insurance enrollment is lagging — and there are lots of reasons why
December 14, 2018 - Study assesses safety and efficacy of new treatment for pancreatic cancer
December 14, 2018 - Weakened metabolism of immune T cells may account for serious complications in elderly
December 14, 2018 - Study finds drug targets for Ebola, Dengue, and Zika viruses
December 14, 2018 - Face masks may offer protection against staph bacteria for hog farm workers and their household members
December 14, 2018 - Shining new light on neuron firing
December 14, 2018 - Study highlights need for personalized approach to treat ICU acquired delirium
December 14, 2018 - Soot particles from road traffic significantly contribute to air pollution
December 14, 2018 - Massage helps relieve pain, improve mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis
December 14, 2018 - Researchers explore home healthcare nurses’ knowledge attitudes toward infection control
December 14, 2018 - Average outpatient visit in the U.S. costs nearly $500, shows new study
December 14, 2018 - Reference Infliximab, Biosimilar Equivalent for Crohn’s Disease
December 14, 2018 - New contact lens to treat eye injuries
December 14, 2018 - Acne could have a genetic basis find researchers promising new cure
December 14, 2018 - Higher physical activity associated with improved mood
December 14, 2018 - New UGA study points to optimal hypertension treatment for stroke patients
December 14, 2018 - Study highlights factors that can reduce food cravings
December 14, 2018 - Researchers discover Ebola-fighting protein in human cells
December 14, 2018 - Fentanyl surpasses heroin in cause of U.S. drug overdose deaths
December 14, 2018 - When Heart Attack Strikes, Women Often Hesitate to Call for Help
December 14, 2018 - A warning about costume contacts
December 14, 2018 - Study examines link between peripheral artery disease and heart attack
December 14, 2018 - Researchers develop biotechnological tool to produce antifungal proteins in plants
December 14, 2018 - 3D-printed adaptive aids can benefit patients with arthritis
December 14, 2018 - Chronic bullying during adolescence impacts mental health
December 14, 2018 - Integral Molecular and Merus collaborate to develop bispecific antibody therapeutics
December 13, 2018 - Importance of cell cycle and cellular senescence in the placenta discovered
Air pollution contributes significantly to diabetes globally

Air pollution contributes significantly to diabetes globally

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

New research links outdoor air pollution—even at levels deemed safe—to an increased risk of diabetes globally, according to a study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the Veterans Affairs (VA) St. Louis Health Care System.

The findings raise the possibility that reducing pollution may lead to a drop in diabetes cases in heavily polluted countries such as India and less polluted ones such as the United States.

Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases, affecting more than 420 million people worldwide and 30 million Americans. The main drivers of diabetes include eating an unhealthy diet, having a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity, but the new research indicates the extent to which outdoor air pollution plays a role.

“Our research shows a significant link between air pollution and diabetes globally,” said Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, the study’s senior author and an assistant professor of medicine at Washington University. “We found an increased risk, even at low levels of air pollution currently considered safe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This is important because many industry lobbying groups argue that current levels are too stringent and should be relaxed. Evidence shows that current levels are still not sufficiently safe and need to be tightened.”

The findings are published June 29 in The Lancet Planetary Health.

While growing evidence has suggested a link between air pollution and diabetes, researchers have not attempted to quantify that burden until now. “Over the past two decades, there have been bits of research about diabetes and pollution,” Al-Aly said. “We wanted to thread together the pieces for a broader, more solid understanding.”

To evaluate outdoor air pollution, the researchers looked at particulate matter, airborne microscopic pieces of dust, dirt, smoke, soot and liquid droplets. Previous studies have found that such particles can enter the lungs and invade the bloodstream, contributing to major health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, cancer and kidney disease. In diabetes, pollution is thought to reduce insulin production and trigger inflammation, preventing the body from converting blood glucose into energy that the body needs to maintain health.

Overall, the researchers estimated that pollution contributed to 3.2 million new diabetes cases globally in 2016, which represents about 14 percent of all new diabetes cases globally that year. They also estimated that 8.2 million years of healthy life were lost in 2016 due to pollution-linked diabetes, representing about 14 percent of all years of healthy life lost due to diabetes from any cause. (The measure of how many years of healthy life are lost is often referred to as “disability-adjusted life years.”)

In the United States, the study attributed 150,000 new cases of diabetes per year to air pollution and 350,000 years of healthy life lost annually.

The Washington University team, in collaboration with scientists at the Veterans Affairs’ Clinical Epidemiology Center, examined the relationship between particulate matter and the risk of diabetes by first analyzing data from 1.7 million U.S. veterans who were followed for a median of 8.5 years. The veterans did not have histories of diabetes. The researchers linked that patient data with the EPA’s land-based air monitoring systems as well as space-borne satellites operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). They used several statistical models and tested the validity against controls such as ambient air sodium concentrations, which have no link to diabetes, and lower limb fractures, which have no link to outdoor air pollution, as well as the risk of developing diabetes, which exhibited a strong link to air pollution. This exercise helped the researchers weed out spurious associations.

Then, they sifted through all research related to diabetes and outdoor air pollution and devised a model to evaluate diabetes risk across various pollution levels.

Finally, they analyzed data from the Global Burden of Disease study, which is conducted annually with contributions from researchers worldwide. The data helped to estimate annual cases of diabetes and healthy years of life lost due to pollution.

The researchers also found that the overall risk of pollution-related diabetes is tilted more toward lower-income countries such as India that lack the resources for environmental mitigation systems and clean-air policies. For instance, poverty-stricken countries facing a higher diabetes-pollution risk include Afghanistan, Papua New Guinea and Guyana, while richer countries such as France, Finland and Iceland experience a lower risk. The U.S. experiences a moderate risk of pollution-related diabetes.

In the U.S., the EPA’s pollution threshold is 12 micrograms per cubic meter of air, the highest level of air pollution considered safe for the public, as set by the Clean Air Act of 1990 and updated in 2012. However, using mathematical models, Al-Aly’s team established an increased diabetes risk at 2.4 micrograms per cubic meter of air. Based on VA data, among a sample of veterans exposed to pollution at a level of between 5 to 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air, about 21 percent developed diabetes. When that exposure increases to 11.9 to 13.6 micrograms per cubic meter of air, about 24 percent of the group developed diabetes. A 3 percent difference appears small, but it represents an increase of 5,000 to 6,000 new diabetes cases per 100,000 people in a given year.

In October 2017, The Lancet Commission on pollution and health published a report outlining knowledge gaps on pollution’s harmful health effects. One of its recommendations was to define and quantify the relationship between pollution and diabetes.

“The team in St. Louis is doing important research to firm up links between pollution and health conditions such as diabetes,” said commission member Philip J. Landrigan, MD, a pediatrician and epidemiologist who is the dean for global health at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York and chair of its Department of Preventive Medicine. “I believe their research will have a significant global impact.”


Explore further:
Breathing dirty air may harm kidneys, study finds

Provided by:
Washington University in St. Louis

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles