Breaking News
January 21, 2019 - High Levels of Activity, Motor Ability Linked to Better Cognition
January 21, 2019 - Killer blows? Knockout study of pair of mouse MicroRNA provides cancer insight
January 21, 2019 - Buffalo researchers receive grant to quicken development of generic equivalents of contraceptives
January 21, 2019 - One-third of pregnant women do not believe cannabis is harmful to their fetus
January 21, 2019 - Fiderstat could be used as chemopreventative drug for intestinal cancers caused by APC gene mutations
January 21, 2019 - Modifying healthcare delivery practices may improve discussions between youth and healthcare providers
January 21, 2019 - UNIST researcher named as recipient of Merck’s 2018 Life Science Awards
January 21, 2019 - How Getting a Flu Shot Could Save Your Life
January 21, 2019 - Surgical adhesions can be treated, prevented in mice
January 21, 2019 - Increased physician-targeted marketing associated with higher opioid overdose deaths
January 21, 2019 - Researchers uncover specific microbial signatures of intestinal disease
January 21, 2019 - Study to investigate new targeted oral treatments for severe asthma
January 21, 2019 - Plan Your Plate | NIH News in Health
January 21, 2019 - Fecal occult blood test may improve CRC outcomes in some
January 21, 2019 - Blood test detects Alzheimer’s disease years before symptoms develop
January 21, 2019 - Mount Sinai joins with Paradigm and ReqMed to repurpose drug for treatment of MPS
January 21, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Votes on Zynquista (sotagliflozin) as Treatment for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes
January 21, 2019 - The causes and complications of snoring
January 21, 2019 - Placenta adapts and compensates when pregnant mothers have poor diets or low oxygen
January 21, 2019 - New implant could restore the transmission of electrical signals in injured central nervous system
January 21, 2019 - Rapid-acting fentanyl test strips found to be effective at reducing overdose risk
January 21, 2019 - Coronary Artery Calcium May Help Predict CVD in South Asians
January 21, 2019 - The mystery of the super-ager
January 21, 2019 - Scientists develop smart microrobots that can change shape depending on their surroundings
January 21, 2019 - Keep Moving to Keep Brain Sharp in Old Age
January 21, 2019 - Despite progress, gay fathers and their children still structurally stigmatized
January 21, 2019 - New drug for treating liver parasites in vivax malaria
January 21, 2019 - Merck recognized with 2018 Life Science Industry Award for best use of social media
January 21, 2019 - Coeur Wallis equips the canton of Valais with 260 SCHILLER defibrillators
January 21, 2019 - Scientists propose quick and pain-free method for diagnosing kidney cancer
January 21, 2019 - Signs of memory loss could point to hearing issues
January 21, 2019 - HeartFlow Analysis shows highest diagnostic performance for detecting coronary artery disease
January 21, 2019 - How Much Caffeine is Too Much?
January 21, 2019 - Take a timeout before you force your child to apologize
January 21, 2019 - Scientists design two AI algorithms to improve early detection of cognitive impairment
January 21, 2019 - Novel therapy for children with chronic hormone deficiency provides lifeline for parents
January 21, 2019 - Bioethicists call for oversight of poorly regulated, consumer-grade neurotechnology products
January 21, 2019 - Study shows hereditary hemochromatosis behind many cancers and joint diseases
January 21, 2019 - Short bouts of stairclimbing throughout the day can improve cardiovascular health
January 20, 2019 - Liver Transplant Survival May Improve With Race Matching
January 20, 2019 - Study implicates hyperactive immune system in aging brain disorders
January 20, 2019 - Cancer Diagnosis May Quadruple Suicide Risk
January 20, 2019 - Parkinson’s disease experts devise a roadmap
January 20, 2019 - Research brings new hope to treating degenerative brain diseases
January 20, 2019 - Scientists pinpoint a set of molecules that wire the body weight center of the brain
January 20, 2019 - Researchers get close to developing elusive blood test for Alzheimer’s disease
January 20, 2019 - UCLA researchers demonstrate new technique to develop cancer-fighting T cells
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover how cancer cells avoid genetic meltdown
January 20, 2019 - Exercise makes even the ‘still overweight’ healthier: study
January 20, 2019 - University of Utah to establish first-of-its-kind dark sky studies minor in the US
January 20, 2019 - School-based nutritional programs reduce student obesity
January 20, 2019 - Improved maternity care practices in the southern U.S. reduce racial inequities in breastfeeding
January 20, 2019 - New enzyme biomarker test indicates diseases and bacterial contamination
January 20, 2019 - Republican and Democratic governors have different visions to transform health care, say researchers
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover that spin flips happen in only half a picosecond in the course of a chemical reaction
January 20, 2019 - Suicide Risk Up More Than Fourfold for Cancer Patients
January 20, 2019 - Doctors find 122 nails in Ethiopian’s stomach
January 20, 2019 - UV disinfection technology eliminates up to 97.7% of pathogens in operating rooms
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover mechanism which drives leukemia cell growth
January 20, 2019 - AHA: Infection as a Baby Led to Heart Valve Surgery for Teen
January 20, 2019 - Injection improves vision in a form of childhood blindness
January 20, 2019 - Multiple sclerosis therapies delay progression of disability
January 20, 2019 - New study finds infrequent helmet use among bike share riders
January 20, 2019 - Clearing up information about corneal dystrophies
January 20, 2019 - Researchers describe new behavior in energy metabolism that refutes existing evidence
January 20, 2019 - New study takes first step toward treating endometriosis
January 20, 2019 - Researchers find how GREB1 gene promotes resistance to prostate cancer treatments
January 20, 2019 - Replacing Sitting Time With Activity Lowers Mortality Risk
January 20, 2019 - A simple, inexpensive intervention makes birth safer for moms and babies in parts of Africa
January 19, 2019 - New anti-inflammatory compound acts as ‘surge protector’ to reduce cancer growth
January 19, 2019 - Significant flaws found in recently released forensic software
January 19, 2019 - New Leash on Life? Staying Slim Keeps Pooches Happy, Healthy
January 19, 2019 - Men and women remember pain differently
January 19, 2019 - Rising air pollution linked with increased ER visits for breathing problems
January 19, 2019 - Study uses local data to model food consumption patterns among Seattle residents
January 19, 2019 - The brain’s cerebellum plays role in controlling reward and social behaviors, study shows
January 19, 2019 - Relationship between nurse work environment and patient safety
January 19, 2019 - Pioneering surgery restores movement to children paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis
January 19, 2019 - Genetic variants linked with risk tolerance and risky behaviors
January 19, 2019 - New research provides better understanding of our early human ancestors
ADHD may increase risk of Parkinson’s disease and similar disorders

ADHD may increase risk of Parkinson’s disease and similar disorders

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Could ADHD be a key to identifying future risk of Parkinson’s and Parkinson-like diseases? Credit: University of Utah Health

While about 11 percent of children (4-17 years old) nationwide have been diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the long-term health effects of having ADHD and of common ADHD medications remains understudied. Researchers at University of Utah Health found that ADHD patients had an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s and Parkinson-like diseases than individuals with no ADHD history. The results are available online on September 12 in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

“Parkinson’s disease is commonly thought of as a neurodegenerative disease associated with aging,” said Glen Hanson, D.D.S., Ph.D., professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Dentistry at U of U Health and senior author on the paper. “This may be the first time where a childhood disease and its treatment may be linked to a geriatric expression of neurodegenerative disorder.”

In a retrospective, population-based study, Hanson’s team found ADHD patients were more than twice as likely to develop early onset (21-66 years old) Parkinson’s and Parkinson-like diseases compared to non-ADHD individuals of the same gender and age. The estimated risk was six to eight-times higher for ADHD patients prescribed the stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Metadate and Methylin), mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin).

“If we were to follow 100,000 adults over time, in one year we would expect 1 to 2 people will develop Parkinson’s disease before age 50,” said Karen Curtin, Ph.D., associate professor in Internal Medicine at U of U Health and first author on the study. “If we were to follow 100,000 adults prescribed treatment for ADHD over time, we estimate that over a year 8 to 9 patients will develop Parkinson’s disease before age 50.”

The authors caution that patients with a more severe type of ADHD may inherently be at an increased risk of motor neuron diseases like Parkinson’s, and the results may or may not be a direct result of the stimulant medication. Future studies are needed to reach a more definitive conclusion.

“The jury is still out,” Curtin said. “The increased risk we observed in people could be linked to having ADHD itself or perhaps a more severe form of ADHD, which may be more likely to be treated with medications.”

ADHD is a brain disorder associated with changes in the release of dopamine, which regulates the emotional response. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder associated with tremors, stiffness and slowing of movement. Typically Parkinson’s does not develop until age 60 or later.

The team used the Utah Population Database (UPDB), which contains vital and medical records of more than 11 million individuals who have lived in the state, to examine twenty years of historic records. Eligible patients were born between 1950?1992, were at least 20-years old by the end of 2011, were residents of Utah after January 1, 1996 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson’s or Parkinson-like diseases.

Using the UPDB, Hanson and his team compiled an ADHD population, consisting of 31,769 patients, of which 4,960 were prescribed stimulant medications (2,716 received amphetamine salts, 1,941 received methylphenidate and 303 received both). The non-ADHD comparison population consisted of 158,790 individuals who were matched to the ADHD group on gender and age (5 to 1).

In addition to accounting for differences in gender and age, the study controlled for the effects of psychotic disorders and tobacco use that could be associated with Parkinson’s independent of ADHD. Patients with a history of drug or alcohol abuse were excluded from the study. The team were not able to account for other factors that could contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease, including head trauma, brain injuries and environmental toxins.

According to Hanson, the study results should be considered preliminary. This study may be limited by the misclassification of non-ADHD subjects, who were diagnosed with the disorder outside of Utah, missed or incorrect diagnosis of Parkinson-like disease symptoms and the lack of information on the duration of use and dosage of ADHD medication prescribed.

This project builds on past research that reported a link between amphetamine abuse and the onset of Parkinson’s disease, confirmed by other research groups.

“I believe the treatment is still a benefit, especially for children who cannot control their ADHD symptoms,” Hanson said. “Medication really should be considered on a case-by-case basis.”


Explore further:
Study highlights multiple factors of ADHD medication use

More information:
“Increased Risk of Diseases of the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum in Patients with a History of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” September 12, 2018, Neuropsychopharmacology.

Journal reference:
Neuropsychopharmacology

Provided by:
University of Utah

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles