Breaking News
January 23, 2019 - Unique data combination helps FinnGen researchers to fund links between genetic factors and health
January 23, 2019 - Parents’ mental health problems associated with reactive attachment disorder in children
January 23, 2019 - Graphene Flagship project studies impact of graphene and related materials on our health
January 23, 2019 - The connection between the Pope and contraceptive pills
January 23, 2019 - Prior dengue infection could protect children from symptomatic Zika
January 23, 2019 - VISTA checkpoint implicated in pancreatic cancer immunotherapy resistance
January 23, 2019 - The Tiny Camera That Could Revolutionize Cardiovascular Surgery
January 23, 2019 - Peptide isolated from soil fungi has antitumor and antibacterial properties
January 23, 2019 - TGen identifies polio-like virus as potential cause of Acute Flaccid Myelitis outbreak
January 23, 2019 - Migrants and refugees do not bring disease and are at greater health risk themselves says WHO
January 23, 2019 - Examing the effects of menopause in workplace
January 23, 2019 - Enemy number 1 – Air pollution and climate change top of WHO agenda
January 23, 2019 - Two Positive Phase III studies of Tafenoquine for the Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Published in The New England Journal of Medicine
January 23, 2019 - World Trade Center responders at increased risk for head and neck cancers
January 23, 2019 - Low-sugar diet leads to significant improvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in boys
January 23, 2019 - Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system, finds study
January 23, 2019 - Short, text-based exercises can increase happiness for adults recovering from substance use disorders
January 23, 2019 - Body size may have greater influence on women’s lifespan than men
January 23, 2019 - Groundbreaking tool helps visualize neuronal activity with near-infrared light
January 23, 2019 - Holocaust survivors with PTSD and their offspring exhibit more unhealthy behavior patterns
January 23, 2019 - Scientists discover new genetic mutations causing inherited deaf-blindness
January 23, 2019 - UC team designs new naloxone-dispensing smart device
January 23, 2019 - Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Losartan Potassium Tablets, USP and Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets, USP
January 23, 2019 - Brain activity shows development of visual sensitivity in autism
January 23, 2019 - Two hour gap between dinner and sleep is overrated says Japanese research
January 23, 2019 - Fear and embarrassment are causing smear test numbers to plummet
January 23, 2019 - Protein-secreting device implanted in epileptic rats reduces seizures, improves cognition
January 23, 2019 - Reintroduction project recovers current wild population of green turtle in Cayman Islands
January 23, 2019 - Cancer survivors face greater financial burden related to medical bills
January 23, 2019 - PSA screening reduces prostate cancer deaths by 30%
January 23, 2019 - LSTM receives grant to help improve health of people living in informal settlements
January 23, 2019 - Hemochromatosis Mutation Linked to Other Morbidity
January 23, 2019 - Why early diagnosis of autism should lead to early intervention
January 23, 2019 - Aspirin May Lower Stroke Risk in Women with History of Preeclampsia
January 23, 2019 - Exposure to certain chemicals may be linked to decrease in blood pressure during pregnancy
January 23, 2019 - Bowel cancer on the rise among younger Australians
January 23, 2019 - Scientists have reversed memory loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s
January 23, 2019 - Defective molecular master switch could lead to age-related macular degeneration
January 23, 2019 - Researchers identify how concussions may contribute to seizures
January 23, 2019 - Short interval between last meal of the day and bedtime may not affect blood glucose levels
January 23, 2019 - Still Too Many Highway Deaths Tied to Speeding
January 23, 2019 - Prenatal valproate exposure linked to increased ADHD risk
January 23, 2019 - Compound identified that may help treat heart failure
January 23, 2019 - Undiagnosed Asthma in Urban Adolescents May Be Common
January 23, 2019 - Study describes metabolism of intestinal microbiota in babies for the first time
January 22, 2019 - Study links concussions to development of epilepsy
January 22, 2019 - Specialist-led hospital bereavement service may help restrain legal action after difficult deaths
January 22, 2019 - Genetic study reveals possible new routes to treating osteoarthritis
January 22, 2019 - Blood test may detect early signs of lung-transplant rejection
January 22, 2019 - Blood marker could aid in early prediction of Alzheimer’s progression
January 22, 2019 - Orthodontic treatment does not guarantee future dental health
January 22, 2019 - Rutgers researchers discover cause of bone loss in people with joint replacements
January 22, 2019 - Diversity among rural Africans extends to their gut microbiomes
January 22, 2019 - Newly developed biological system lets cells to create self-curving cornea
January 22, 2019 - VTv Therapeutics Announces Publication of Comprehensive Data in Science Translational Medicine Detailing the Discovery and Clinical Development of TTP399, including Results of Phase 2 AGATA Study
January 22, 2019 - about one in three adults with prediabetes has arthritis
January 22, 2019 - A look at how data is democratizing health care
January 22, 2019 - Alcohol-Linked Disease Overtakes Hep C As Top Reason For Liver Transplant
January 22, 2019 - Researchers identify new genes linked with age-related macular degeneration
January 22, 2019 - MPFI researchers identify synaptic logic for connections between two brain hemispheres
January 22, 2019 - New approach to reduce toxic protein production in ALS
January 22, 2019 - New study extends our knowledge of the link between miRNAs and cancer
January 22, 2019 - Asthma, eczema are not barriers to active lifestyle in teenagers
January 22, 2019 - Genetic changes may predict likelihood of relapse in breast cancer patients
January 22, 2019 - Antiepileptic drug use by people with Alzheimer’s disease linked to accumulation of hospital days
January 22, 2019 - IUPUI researcher receives $2.85 million grant to find ways to improve bone strength
January 22, 2019 - Precision medicine can help keep astronauts healthy during deep space missions
January 22, 2019 - Detecting signs of neurodegeneration earlier and more accurately
January 22, 2019 - Mouse studies challenge ‘inhibition’ theory of autism
January 22, 2019 - SSB launches BIOSTAT RM TX single-use bioreactor for producing consistent quality cellular products
January 22, 2019 - Experimental drug can positively modify key characteristic behavior in FXS patients
January 22, 2019 - Low-Income Women Lack Menstrual Hygiene Supplies
January 22, 2019 - Better mouse model built to enable precision-medicine research for Alzheimer’s
January 22, 2019 - Molecular profiling of precancerous lung lesions could lead to early detection and new treatments
January 22, 2019 - Genetic factors influence where fat is stored in our bodies
January 22, 2019 - The Psychology Behind Sticking to Your New Year’s Resolutions
January 22, 2019 - Scientists aim to find genetic causes of developmental abnormalities in the vagina and uterus
January 22, 2019 - New survey reveals scale of preventative healthcare challenge in the UK
January 22, 2019 - Looming Global Crisis Means People’s Diets Must Change: Experts
January 22, 2019 - Excessive social media use is comparable to drug addiction
Single cell analysis paves the way for better treatments for IBD

Single cell analysis paves the way for better treatments for IBD

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
High magnification micrograph of Crohn’s disease. Biopsy of esophagus. H&E stain. Credit: Nephron/Wikipedia

Researchers at MRC HIU examined the large intestine using sophisticated single cell technology, in work that paves the way for better treatments for IBD.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with limited treatment options. The two main forms of the disease, Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis, affect more than 300,000 people in the UK. Up to 40% of patients with IBD fail to respond to conventional therapies, partly due to our limited understanding of the cells that form the large intestine, but also how they change in in patients affected by this disease.

A new study by the group of Professor Alison Simmons at the MRC Human Immunology Unit based in the MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine paves the way for better treatments for IBD by providing the first detailed single cell resolution analysis of colon cells in health and disease.

The researchers specifically examined mesenchymal cells, a group of cells that play instrumental roles in innate immunity, immune regulation and epithelial barrier maintenance in the gut. These cells are known to be important, but it is unclear whether they constitute a homogeneous population of cells, and/or how they change in a disease context. The group led by Professor Simmons, Professor of Gastroenterology at the Nuffield Department of Medicine, examined these cells using sophisticated single cell technology that allows assessment of the characteristics of individual cells with incredible precision.

“Using cutting edge technologies such as single cell RNA sequencing, single molecule in situ hybridisation, organoid cultures and mass cytometry time-of-flight, we were able to examine functionally diverse mesenchymal cells in the colon and track their pathogenic changes during inflammation,” explained the authors. “Colonic mesenchymal cells are a very complex cell type; precise RNA sequencing on a single cell level allowed us to segregate cells into functionally diverse categories for the first time. We then complemented this by using mass cytometry, which utilises stable metal isotopes coupled to antibodies to detect cellular targets, to dissect the most biologically significant markers associated with IBD pathology. We further used techniques such as single molecule in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry and sophisticated three dimensional organoid cultures to interrogate the anatomical localisation of these functionally specialised subsets of cells and demonstrate their relative contributions to health and disease.”

In total they examined 16,500 cells, assembling a detailed atlas of the colonic mesenchyme. Careful analysis of this atlas showed that, rather than a homogeneous group, mesenchymal cells actually fall into 5 categories, each with its unique characteristics, both in terms of gene expression, biological function and localisation. In particular they were able to show that one specific subset of these cells is dysregulated in patients with IBD, providing clues for how the disease emerges.

In addition, the researchers also compared the composition of the colon in human patients and mouse models of IBD. This work provides a detailed of understanding of the similarities and difference between the two species, essential as mice are vital models for the development and assessment of new drugs and treatments.

“This work has allowed us to highlight the most significant disease-associated features that we have identified as major drivers of chronic intestinal inflammation, many of which will open up new areas of drug targets for inflammatory bowel disease,” they added.

The authors hope that this study provides the scientific community with a comprehensive atlas of the colon in health and disease, an important reference point for the development of future therapies for IBD but also for other conditions affecting the intestine.

The full paper, “Structural Remodeling of the Human Colonic Mesenchyme in Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” is published in the journal Cell.


Explore further:
Oxysterols guide gut immune cells and are involved in inflammatory bowel disease

More information:
James Kinchen et al. Structural Remodeling of the Human Colonic Mesenchyme in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Cell (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.067

Journal reference:
Cell

Provided by:
University of Oxford

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles