Breaking News
February 16, 2019 - Therapeutic endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of IBD
February 16, 2019 - Catalyst Biosciences Presents Updated Data from Its Phase 2/3 Trial of Subcutaneous Marzeptacog Alfa (Activated) in Individuals with Hemophilia A or B with Inhibitors at the 12th Annual EAHAD Congress
February 16, 2019 - Rerouting nerves during amputation reduces phantom limb pain before it starts
February 16, 2019 - A Hormone Produced When We Exercise Might Help Fight Alzheimer’s
February 16, 2019 - Millions of British people breathe toxic air travelling to GPs
February 16, 2019 - Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft
February 16, 2019 - Researchers use optogenetic tool to control, visualize receptor signals in neural cells
February 16, 2019 - New reversible antiplatelet therapy could reduce risk of blood clots, prevent cancer metastasis
February 16, 2019 - Testosterone is not the only hormone needed for penis development
February 16, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Spravato (esketamine) Nasal Spray for Adults with Treatment-Resistant Depression
February 15, 2019 - Heart surgery technology developed at Baptist Health debuts after years of secrecy
February 15, 2019 - Prescription Opioids Double Risk of Triggering Fatal Car Crash
February 15, 2019 - New study helps doctors better understand high blood pressure in pregnant women
February 15, 2019 - Beta wave control in Parkinson’s diseased brain could be a potential therapy
February 15, 2019 - Media representations of love may justify gender-based violence in young people
February 15, 2019 - Yoga May Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms, Severity
February 15, 2019 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
February 15, 2019 - Master your mind: A challenge from WELL for Life
February 15, 2019 - Why Some Brain Tumors Respond to Immunotherapy
February 15, 2019 - Must-Reads Of The Week From Brianna Labuskes
February 15, 2019 - Researchers uncover novel mechanism and potential new therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s
February 15, 2019 - Genetic variations in a fourth gene associated with higher ALL risk in Hispanic children
February 15, 2019 - Disruptive behavioral problems in kindergarten linked with lower employment earnings in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - New bioengineered device enhances the production of T-cells
February 15, 2019 - HDL proteome behaves like a tiny Velcro ball that is rolling on surfaces
February 15, 2019 - Puerto Rican children more likely to have poor or decreasing use of asthma inhalers
February 15, 2019 - Quality of patient care does not improve after physician-hospital integration
February 15, 2019 - Synopsys release new software for implant design and patient-specific planning
February 15, 2019 - 6 out of 10 hip replacements last 25 years or longer
February 15, 2019 - Health Tip: What You Should Know About Antibiotics
February 15, 2019 - New research challenges medical consensus that adenoids and tonsils significantly shrink during teenage years
February 15, 2019 - Discovery of weakness in a rare cancer could be exploited with drugs
February 15, 2019 - UVA scientists find potential explanation for mysterious cell death in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s
February 15, 2019 - New rules requiring female athletes to lower testosterone levels are based on flawed data
February 15, 2019 - Researchers comprehensively sequence the human immune system
February 15, 2019 - Researchers study animal venoms to identify new medicines for treating diseases
February 15, 2019 - Movement of wrist bones revealed by MRI and computer modeling
February 15, 2019 - Philips introduces new premium digital X-ray room to help shorten patient wait times
February 15, 2019 - Women fare worse than men following aortic heart surgery, study finds
February 15, 2019 - High-protein and low-calorie diet helps older adults lose weight safely, shows study
February 15, 2019 - Drug microdosing effects may not measure up to big expectations
February 15, 2019 - Discharged, Dismissed: ERs Often Miss Chance To Set Overdose Survivors On ‘Better Path’
February 15, 2019 - A digitized lab environment to be showcased at smartLAB 2019
February 15, 2019 - Scientists uncover main mechanisms of fluconazole drug resistance
February 15, 2019 - New study seeks to understand how colibactin causes cancer
February 15, 2019 - Photoacoustic imaging accurately measures the temperature of deep tissues
February 15, 2019 - Large study finds no association between phthalate exposure and breast cancer risk
February 15, 2019 - New research explains presence of ‘natural’ magnetism in human cells
February 15, 2019 - Bio-Rad launches new digital PCR system and kit for monitoring treatment response in CML patients
February 15, 2019 - Excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA patients linked to greater risk for cardiovascular diseases
February 15, 2019 - Scientists shed light on damaging cell effects linked to aging
February 15, 2019 - Celiac disease may be caused by stomach bug in childhood
February 15, 2019 - NHS performance figures highlight the true scale of Emergency Department crisis
February 15, 2019 - High intensity exercise may improve health by increasing gut microbiota diversity
February 15, 2019 - Apellis’ APL-2 Receives Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA for the Treatment of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
February 15, 2019 - Couples creating art or playing board games release ‘love hormone’
February 15, 2019 - Glimpsing The Future At Gargantuan Health Tech Showcase
February 15, 2019 - Common herbicide found to increase the risk of lymphoma
February 15, 2019 - Over-abundance of energy to cells could increase cancer risk
February 15, 2019 - Oxford Genetics appoints Jocelyne Bath as new Chief Operating Officer
February 15, 2019 - Castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer responds to combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors
February 15, 2019 - Large-scale clinical trial begins to study liver transplantation between people with HIV
February 15, 2019 - Cannabis use among adolescents linked with increased risk of depression in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - Fractures, head injuries common in electric scooter accidents, UCLA study finds
February 15, 2019 - Prenatal maternal depression has important consequences for infant temperament, study shows
February 15, 2019 - Stereotactic body radiotherapy effective in treating men with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer
February 15, 2019 - Zogenix Submits New Drug Application to U.S. Food & Drug Administration for Fintepla for the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome
February 15, 2019 - Certain birthmarks warrant quick treatment, pediatricians say
February 15, 2019 - New machine learning method predicts if atypical ductal hyperplasia will turn cancerous
February 15, 2019 - Whole-genome sequencing and sharing real-time data could limit spread of foodborne bacteria
February 15, 2019 - FDA warns doctor for illegally marketing unapproved implantable device
February 15, 2019 - New injury documentation tool may provide better evidence for elder abuse cases
February 15, 2019 - Physiological age is a better predictor of survival than chronological age, shows study
February 15, 2019 - New study reveals high success rate for hip and knee replacements
February 15, 2019 - Prenatal exposures to BPA may pose threat to human ovarian function
February 15, 2019 - Suspicious spots on the lungs of children with rhabdomyosarcoma do not behave like metastases
February 15, 2019 - Diet drinks daily could raise stroke risk says study
February 15, 2019 - Many Systematic Reviews Do Not Fully Report Adverse Events
February 15, 2019 - Seven tips to protect your child from burns
February 15, 2019 - Keynote speakers announced for CBD Expo MIDWEST
Scientists support original theory about pancreas regeneration

Scientists support original theory about pancreas regeneration

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A contentious debate among diabetes researchers has surrounded the regeneration of pancreatic insulin-producing cells: not if these cells regenerate, but rather how.

The long-held view that the islets of Langerhans can be replenished from pancreatic stem cells (progenitors) was replaced over the last decade by the notion that islets self-duplicate from existing cells. Now, in a manuscript published online in Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, scientists from the Diabetes Research Institute at the University of Miami draw categorical conclusions in support of the original theory that progenitors in the pancreas do exist and, moreover, that these stem cells may regenerate in human patients. The ability to regrow a person’s own insulin-producing cells would address a major challenge in type 1 diabetes and represent a significant step toward developing a biological cure for this life-threatening disease.

“We have demonstrated that there are progenitors in the adult pancreas, not only in mice but in humans, which is a very important clarification, and that those cells can potentially be stimulated through pharmacological means to induce regeneration in patients with type 1 diabetes. That is the ‘Holy Grail’ of what we are trying to achieve here at the DRI,” said Juan Dominguez-Bendala, Ph.D., director of pancreatic stem cell development for translational research and co-author of the paper with Ricardo Pastori, Ph.D., director of molecular biology.

Flawed Techniques Shift the Hypothesis

In the 1980s, researchers logically concluded that the pancreas harbors progenitor cells capable of regenerating endocrine (insulin-producing) cells after an islet was photographed sprouting from an adult pancreatic duct. Over the three decades that followed, dozens of reports further reinforced the idea that a variety of growth factors could stimulate ductal cells to differentiate into all pancreatic cell types, including insulin-producing cells.

That long-standing view was challenged in 2004, when tests using lineage tracing (LT), a technique that tracks the origin of a cell’s development, performed in mice, showed that the insulin-producing cells were replenished by replication of existing cells, rather than from the growth of new ones. While the study did not disprove the existence of progenitor cells, it succeeded in shifting the prevailing thought in the scientific community.

According to the DRI team, however, those conclusions were largely derived using an unreliable tool in an inadequate model. Striking differences between islets of mice and humans are not simply a matter of scale. There are vast anatomic and functional differences between the islets of these two species that call into question the validity of the mouse model to draw conclusions about pancreatic regeneration in humans.

The use of lineage tracing in rodents has also yielded contradictory results. While LT is a powerful tool that has been used for several decades to track the path and origins of stem-cell maturation, it has a number of limitations and carries a potential bias in scientific outcomes.

“The hypothesis that the pancreas harbors progenitor cells has been discredited for a number of years, but we believe that many of the techniques used to reach that conclusion were flawed. We have found profound differences in the behavior of human cells vs. mouse cells in the pancreas and we think it’s important to highlight and emphasize the regeneration processes in human cells,” said Dr. Dominguez-Bendala. “Clearly, our work and the work of others is actually contributing to the notion that we have stem cells in the adult pancreas, and that we can potentially exploit those cells to our benefit for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.”

Harnessing the Body’s Ability to Heal Itself

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition in which the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas have been mistakenly destroyed by the immune system, requiring patients to manage their blood sugar levels through a daily regimen of insulin therapy. Islet transplantation has allowed some patients with type 1 diabetes to live without the need for insulin injections after receiving infusions of donor cells. However, there are not enough cells to treat the millions of patients who can benefit. Thus far, research efforts have focused primarily on creating more pancreatic cells for transplant from sources like embryonic (hESc), pluripotent (hPSc) and adult stem cells, and porcine (pig) islets, among others. A more efficient and potentially safer solution could lie in regenerating a patient’s own insulin-producing cells, sidestepping the need to transplant donor tissue altogether and eliminating other immune-related roadblocks.

“If we could give the patient something that will promote the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of those cells that are already in the pancreas into beta cells while controlling autoimmunity, we could harness the natural ability of the body to heal itself. We think that would open a whole new therapeutic horizon,” said Dr. Dominguez-Bendala.

Source:

https://www.diabetesresearch.org/is-the-pancreas-regeneration-debate-settled

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles