Breaking News
December 10, 2018 - FDA Alerts Health Care Professionals and Patients Not to Use Drug Products Intended to be Sterile from Promise Pharmacy
December 10, 2018 - Improving dementia care and treatment saves thousands of pounds in care homes
December 10, 2018 - Heroin-assisted treatment can offer benefits, reduce harms
December 10, 2018 - People covered by Michigan’s expanded Medicaid program report improvements in health, finds study
December 10, 2018 - Hazelnuts improve micronutrient levels in older adults
December 9, 2018 - History of Partner Violence Tied to Menopause Symptoms
December 9, 2018 - Clean Up Safely After a Disaster|Natural Disasters and Severe Weather
December 9, 2018 - Drug wholesalers drove fentanyl’s deadly rise, report concludes
December 9, 2018 - Deprescribing could help manage polypharmacy in older adults
December 9, 2018 - Retraction of article “Joy of cooking too much” from journal
December 9, 2018 - FDA Warns of Rare Stroke Risk With MS Drug Lemtrada (Alemtuzumab)
December 9, 2018 - Feds say heroin, fentanyl remain biggest drug threat to US
December 9, 2018 - Eliminating microglia can reverse some aspects of stress sensitization, study shows
December 9, 2018 - New genetic insight could help treat rare debilitating heart and lung condition
December 9, 2018 - MiRagen Therapeutics Announces Final Safety, Biodistribution and Clinical Efficacy Data From Phase 1 Cobomarsen Clinical Trial in Patients With Mycosis Fungoides
December 9, 2018 - Work with your doctor to weigh pros, cons of treatment options for hyperthyroidism
December 9, 2018 - CWRU researcher secures $14.6 million funding for genetic study into Alzheimer’s disease
December 9, 2018 - High intensity statin treatment and adherence could save more lives
December 9, 2018 - Surgery patients use only 1/4 of prescribed opioids, and prescription size matters
December 9, 2018 - AXT offers Phi Optics upgrade to QPI systems for inverted light microscopes
December 9, 2018 - New booklet could help improve conditions of young pupils with albinism
December 9, 2018 - Few Physicians Work in Practices That Use Telemedicine
December 9, 2018 - Older Adults and Oral Health
December 9, 2018 - Health utility values improve after septorhinoplasty
December 9, 2018 - New EU-funded project provides insight into how the brain develops
December 9, 2018 - Expanded use of tele-emergency services can help strengthen rural hospitals
December 9, 2018 - Infections in the Young May Be Tied to Risk for Mental Illness: Study
December 9, 2018 - Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders
December 9, 2018 - Snoring poses greater cardiac risk to women
December 9, 2018 - Researcher takes further steps in understanding how and why cute aggression occurs
December 9, 2018 - Researchers create new light-activated tools for controlling neurons
December 9, 2018 - Spinal cord injury disrupts the body’s internal clock, study shows
December 9, 2018 - Babies recognize nested structures similar to our grammar
December 9, 2018 - UT Austin researcher receives $2.5 million CZI grant for neurodegenerative disease research
December 9, 2018 - Sleep problems found to be prevalent and increasing among college students
December 9, 2018 - Study reveals why some children are susceptible to the effects of maltreatment
December 9, 2018 - Study investigates influence of different opioids on driving performance
December 9, 2018 - Jazz Pharmaceuticals Announces First Patient Enrolled in Phase 3 Clinical Trial Evaluating JZP-258 for the Treatment of Idiopathic Hypersomnia
December 9, 2018 - Eliminating microglia prevents heightened immune sensitivity after stress
December 9, 2018 - Boys with social difficulties are at greatest risk of early substance use
December 9, 2018 - ‘Wrong’ connective tissue cells linked to worse prognosis in breast cancer patients
December 8, 2018 - Chronic, refractory schizophrenia patients benefit from targeted cognitive training
December 8, 2018 - Advertising in kids’ apps more prevalent than parents may realize
December 8, 2018 - New way to trace the transmission histories of rare genetic diseases
December 8, 2018 - ASH: A+CHP Bests CHOP for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma
December 8, 2018 - Results of pediatric genomic epilepsy tests often reclassified
December 8, 2018 - New way of controlling HIV latency to completely eradicate the virus
December 8, 2018 - Phasefocus to showcase the Livecyte 2 at ASCB
December 8, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Is health spending the next big political issue?
December 8, 2018 - Mussels take in microplastic pollution fibers and flush most of them out again
December 8, 2018 - AHA: How to Stop Smoking … for Good
December 8, 2018 - Scientists overturn odds to make Parkinson’s discovery
December 8, 2018 - Health benefits of producing marula vinegar
December 8, 2018 - Failure of critical cellular energy sensor responsible for CKD progression, study finds
December 8, 2018 - Ethnicity can be reliable indicator of gut microbiota diversity
December 8, 2018 - Safe Sleep for Baby | NIH News in Health
December 8, 2018 - Study looks at ways technology can support nutritional needs of Parkinson’s patients
December 8, 2018 - Infant milk allergy is being overdiagnosed say experts
December 8, 2018 - Graphene may one day be used to test for ALS
December 8, 2018 - Houston Methodist launches real-time website to track flu cases
December 8, 2018 - RedHill Announces Positive Top-Line Results from Confirmatory Phase 3 Study with Talicia for H. pylori Infection
December 8, 2018 - A way to measure obesity and health beyond BMI
December 8, 2018 - New diagnostic tools may help identify breast cancer patients who could benefit from targeted therapies
December 8, 2018 - Duke-NUS researchers highlight possible role of bioaerosol sampling in pandemic surveillance
December 8, 2018 - Study quantifies links between alcohol, drug use and violent deaths
December 8, 2018 - Mothers’ stress levels at conception linked to child’s response to life challenges at age 11
December 8, 2018 - MIT researchers develop antimicrobial peptides from South American wasp’s venom
December 8, 2018 - Obesity prevention among low-income, diverse preschool-aged children and parents
December 8, 2018 - Mount Sinai researcher awarded $2.5 million to advance understanding of neurodegenerative diseases
December 8, 2018 - CZI announces funding for open-source software efforts to improve image analysis in biomedicine
December 8, 2018 - New book encompasses the vast history of reproduction
December 8, 2018 - Low-income women in Texas are not receiving contraception after childbirth, study shows
December 8, 2018 - Study expands knowledge about sexuality and gender gaps in political attitudes
December 8, 2018 - Drug reduces hot flash frequency, improves quality of life in breast cancer survivors
December 8, 2018 - Imaging, Biopsy Often Still Needed After Mastectomy
December 8, 2018 - Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: 2nd edition
December 8, 2018 - Machine learning can improve chemical toxicity prediction
December 8, 2018 - Researchers explore why and how Mediterranean diet may mitigate cardiovascular risk
December 8, 2018 - Multigene test is a helpful decision making tool in breast cancer treatment, study shows
December 8, 2018 - New EZ-2 centrifugal evaporator to safely remove solvents from cytotoxic drug preparations
Interactions of microbes in gastrointestinal system have large effects on health

Interactions of microbes in gastrointestinal system have large effects on health

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The interactions that take place between the species of microbes living in the gastrointestinal system often have large and unpredicted effects on health, according to new work from a team led by Carnegie’s Will Ludington. Their findings are published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The gut microbiome is an ecosystem of hundreds to thousands of microbial species living within the human body. The sheer diversity within the human gut presents a challenge to cataloging and understanding the effect these communities have on our health.

Biologists are particularly interested in determining whether or not the microbiome as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In other words, to what extent do individual species influence our health and physiology, and to what degree are these impacts determined by interactions between the species present in our microbiomes?

Ludington and his team–including molecular biologists Alison Gould, Vivian Zhang, and Benjamin Obadia of University of California Berkeley; physicists Eric Jones and Jean Carlson of University of California Santa Barbara; and mathematicians Lisa Lamberti, Nikolaos Korasidis, and Niko Beerenwinkel of ETH Zurich and Alex Gavryushkin of University of Otago–used the naturally simple microbiome of fruit flies to comprehensively reveal the gut ecosystem. The team found that the interactions between species in the gut microbiome impact fly health and even longevity.

“The classic way we think about bacterial species is in a black-and-white context as agents of disease–either you have it, or you don’t,” Ludington said. “Our work shows that isn’t the case for the microbiome. The effects of a particular species depend on the context of which other species are also present.”

It has long been known from fruit fly studies that populations of gut bacteria can affect their host’s development, fertility, and longevity. In 1927, Helen Steinfeld of UC Berkeley found that by simply removing the gut bacteria from her laboratory’s fruit flies, she could extend their lifespans by 14 percent.

Ludington’s team repeated the experiment and found a similar 23 percent lifespan extension when they removed their flies’ particular microbiomes. But it was unclear to them how much of this influence was due to the individual species that were present and how much was due to their overall microbial ecology.

Ludington and his team built off Steinfeld’s work to dissect the fruit fly gut microbiome and better understand how these microorganisms shape the lives of their insect hosts.

They developed a system for mapping all the possible interactions between the five species of bacteria found in the fly gut in order to see how they affected an insect’s development, production of offspring, and lifespan, which combine to determine its fitness. The analysis of the interactions required developing new mathematical approaches, which are based on the geometry of a five-dimensional cube, where each species is a new dimension.

The team found that the interactions that take place between the microbial populations are as important to the fly’s physiology as which individual species are present. In terms of the 23 percent change in lifespan, individual species can account for only one quarter of the effect, while interactions account for the rest. These interactions are highly influential to some, but not all, of the factors that determine a fly’s likelihood of passing its genetic material on to a new generation.

“As we examined the total of what we call a fly’s fitness–it’s chances of surviving and creating offspring–we found that there was a tradeoff between having a short lifespan with lots of offspring, versus having a long lifespan with few offspring,” Ludington explained. “This tradeoff was mediated by microbiome interactions. That means that if we want to understand how the microbiome impacts our health, we need to develop a predictive understanding of how combinations of bacteria affect the host, not just the individual species.”

Additionally, the measurement and analysis tools developed for this research project demonstrate that the fruit fly is a good model for understanding more complex microbiome interactions in humans and other animals, which will be important for future work.

Source:

https://carnegiescience.edu/node/2423

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles